Research Article

Experimental research on the mechanism of chemical energy conversion to light energy under thermal induction

Jiping Liu*, Zhuqing Fang, Yinjie Wang and Jia Han

Published: 02 March, 2021 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-005

Since the discovery of glare illuminators, considerable efforts have been devoted to achieving a breakthrough of high light intensity on the order of magnitude. In this paper, we prepared strong flash blinding agents for the first time by using aluminum powder, oxidant, and adhesive as the main materials, and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Al2Q3), triazoindolizine, or nano zinc oxide, etc. as electronic output brightener after mixing and granulation according to the developed formulation. It was discovered that the luminescence intensity was related to the thermal effect of the substance while the brightener only served as an auxiliary brightening effect to achieve energy non-destructive conversion. With the same formula, the luminescence intensities of glaze agents with ADN and potassium perchlorate as oxidants were slightly higher than that of ammonium perchlorate oxidant; the brightening effect of nano-zinc oxide was slightly higher than those of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Al2Q3) and triazoindolizine. The luminescence intensity of the substance with a high thermal effect value was high, but the luminescence time was slightly short. Under identical conditions, the luminescence effect of nano-aluminum powder was obviously better than that of micro-aluminum powder with the highest luminescence intensity of 3.9 × 1010 ~ 1.9 × 1011 cd and the luminescence time of 39 - 48 ms. The effects of shell material and structure and the effect of heat-induced mode on the luminescence intensity were also investigated. The luminescence intensity of the glare agent with a high shell strength was high, but the luminescence time was slightly short. Moreover, the energy level of the brightener is excited under the induction of high temperatures, which leads to a blue shift to promote the chemical reaction of the material in a favorable direction. Finally, the optical radiation of the thermally induced high-temperature combustion system was analyzed from the aspects of thermal effect, combustion temperature, and chemiluminescence effect. A way to improve the optical radiation intensity of a high-temperature combustion system was proposed.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijpra.1001033 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Thermal effect chemical energy; Light energy; Optical radiation; Chemiluminescence


  1. Li L, Chen Y, Zhu J. Recent Advances in Electrochemiluminescence Analysis. Anal Chem. 2017; 89: 358-371. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27959507/
  2. Kabe R, Adachi C. Organic long persistent luminescence. Nature. 2017; 550: 384-387. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28967911/
  3. Ke B, Wu W, Liu W, Liang H, Gong D, et al. Bioluminescence Probe for Detecting Hydrogen Sulfide in vivo. Anal Chem. 2016; 88: 592-595. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26634959/
  4. Hai Z, Li J, Wu J, Xu J, Liang G. Alkaline Phosphatase-Triggered Simultaneous Hydrogelation and Chemiluminescence. J Am Chem Soc. 2017; 139: 1041-1044. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28064496/
  5. Moretti J, Sabatini J, Chen G. Periodate Salts as Pyrotechnic Oxidizers: Development of Barium‐ and Perchlorate‐Free Incendiary Formulations. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012; 51: 6981-6983. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22639415/
  6. Moretti J, Sabatini J, Poret J, Gilbert R. Development of Sustainable, Epoxy-Bound Mg/NaNO3 Compositions for the U.S. Army’s 40 mm Yellow Illuminant Flares. ACS Sustain Chem Engeer. 2015; 3: 2232-2236.
  7. Ferraz-Albani LA, Baldelli A, Knapp CJ, Jäger W, Vehring R, et al. Enhanced evaporation of microscale droplets with an infrared laser. J Heat Transfer. 2017; 139.
  8. Baldelli A, Jeronimo M, Tinney M, Bartlett K. Real-time measurements of formaldehyde emissions in a gross anatomy laboratory. SN App Sci. 2020; 2: 1-13.
  9. Zhang J, Duan C, Han C, Yang H, Wei Y, et al. Balanced Dual Emissions from Tridentate Phosphine‐Coordinate Copper(I) Complexes toward Highly Efficient Yellow OLEDs. Adv Materials. 2016; 28: 5975-5979.
  10. Xiang H, Li Y, Zhou L, Xie H, Li C, et al. Outcoupling-Enhanced Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Ameliorated Plastic Substrate with Built-in Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Transparent Electrode. ACS Nano. 2015; 9: 7553-7562. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26143652/
  11. Liu D, Li Y, Yuan J, Hong Q, Shi G, et al. Improved performance of inverted planar perovskite solar cells with F4-TCNQ doped PEDOT:PSS hole transport layers. J Materials Chem A. 2017; 5: 5701-5708.
  12. Ditmire T, Tisch W, Springate E, Mason M, Hay N, et al. High-energy ions produced in explosions of superheated atomic clusters. Nature. 1997; 386: 54-56.
  13. Ditmire T, Tisch J, Springate E. High energy ion explosion of atomic clusters: Transition from molecular to plasma behavior. Phy Rev Lett. 1997; 14: 2732-2735.
  14. Kheirkhah P, Baldelli A, Kirchen P, Rogak S. Development and validation of a multi-angle light scattering method for fast engine soot mass and size measurements. Aero Sci Technol. 2020; 54: 1083-1101.
  15. Davison N. ‘Non-Lethal’ Weapons, Palgrave Macmillan, London. 2009; 75-78.
  16. Mao D, Wu W, Ji S, Chen C, Hu F, et al. Chemiluminescence-Guided Cancer Therapy Using a Chemiexcited Photosensitizer. Chem. 2017; 3: 991-1007.
  17. Kao P, Liu C, Li T. Nonvolatile memory and opto-electrical characteristics of organic memory devices with zinc oxide nanoparticles embedded in the tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum light-emitting layer. Organic Electronics. 2015; 21: 203-209.
  18. Kasper J, Pimentel. Iodine-atom laser emission in alkyl iodide photolysis. Phy Rev Letters. 1965; 43: 1827.
  19. Doyle W, Conway J, Grosse A. The combustion of zirconium in oxygen. J Inorganic Nuclear Chem. 1958; 6: 138-142.
  20. Aly Y, Dreizin E. Ignition and combustion of Al·Mg alloy powders prepared by different techniques. Combustion and Flame. 2015; 162: 1440-1447.


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More