Research Article

On Friedman equation, quadratic laws and the geometry of our universe

S Kalimuthu*

Published: 25 June, 2021 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 048-050

Einstein’s special and general relativity revolutionized physics. The predictions of general relativity are Strong Lensing, Weak Lensing, Microlensing, Black Holes, Relativistic Jets, A Gravitational Vortex, Gravitational Waves, The Sun Delaying Radio Signals, Proof from Orbiting Earth, Expansion of the universe. The density of the universe determines the geometry and fate of the universe. According to Freedman’s equations of general relativity published in 1922 and 1924, the geometry of the universe may be closed, open and flat. It all depends upon the curvature of the universe also. Various results of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and ESA’s Planck spacecraft probes found that our universe is flat within a margin of 0.4% error. In this short work, by applying the laws of quadratic equations, we attempt to show that OUR UNIVERSE IS FLAT.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijpra.1001041 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Freidman Equations; The fate of our Universe; MSC 08C99; PACS numbers: 98.70.Vc, 98.80.-k, 98.80.Es


  1. https://old.inspirehep.net/record/1795190
  2. https://old.inspirehep.net/record/1806710
  3. https://old.inspirehep.net/record/1826734
  4. https://old.inspirehep.net/record/1833036
  5. https://old.inspirehep.net/record/1833037
  6. http://www.sciencepub.net/academia/aaj130421/
  7. https://www.peertechzpublications.com/articles/AMP-3-115.pdf

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