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Submitted: March 04, 2024 | Approved: April 04, 2024 | Published: April 05, 2024

How to cite this article: Qadri SM. Time Electron Theory. Int J Phys Res Appl. 2024; 7: 026-039.

DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijpra.1001081

Copyright License: © 2024 Qadri SM. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: Electron interaction theory of time; Time as an emergent property; Electron movement and time perception; Entropy and time's arrow; Gravitational time dilation; Microscopic vs. Macroscopic time perception; Time equation; Breaking of symmetry and time; Quantum transitions and time's flow; Quantum mechanics; Special relativity

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Time Electron Theory

Syed Munim Qadri*

Independent Researcher, Egypt

*Address for Correspondence: Syed Munim Qadri, Independent Researcher, Egypt, Email:

What is time? Is it a physical quantity, illusion, or dimension? Defining time is challenging and fascinating. We often consider time as a dimension to help us understand the concept of space-time. Time undeniably exists, but we can only sense its presence through its effects. For instance, if we take two apples, one bought months ago and the other just a day ago, we can tell that one apple was bought a long time ago because it had rotted. We express time as the effect caused by it. If there were no effects of time on this universe, then the concept of time would not exist [1,2].

The fundamental question is what is time? Time can be defined as the interaction between atoms, particularly electron movement. Atoms form the basic building blocks of most parts of the world. The change in atoms in the rest of the universe constitutes time.

Consider two apples kept in the same location for months. The atoms in an apple continually interact with the atoms in their surroundings, involving the gain or loss of energy by electrons through their continuous movement. Over time, the apples decayed. However, if we completely cut off or significantly slow down these interactions, the apples will not decay. When we check both apples after a few months, one will have decayed and the other will be as fresh as when it was bought. It is evident that time passed slowly for one apple and at a normal rate for the other. An apple with reduced or no interactions experiences time at a slower rate, while the one with normal interactions decays because it experiences time at a normal rate. Therefore, we define time as the effects caused by interactions with an object, in this case, an apple.

Within the intricate clockwork of our bodies, where cells dance a delicate ballet of life and decline, whispers echo time with a unique resonance. Entropy, the universe's insatiable hunger for disorder, casts a long shadow across our biology, its tendrils reaching into the very mechanisms that govern our aging. Could the irreversible march of time, etched into the flow of seconds and the hands on a clock, be mirrored in the one-way journey that our cells take from vibrant youth to fragile frailty?

Consider the cellular orchestra, where proteins play their instruments, DNA conducts, and energy flows like a vital current. As the time arrow marches on, entropy whispers its secrets, unraveling the tapestry of the cellular order. DNA accumulates scars, such as weathered parchments, and its code is marked by errors and mutations. Telomeres, the protective caps on our genetic strands, shrink with each cellular division, such as melting candles, marking the passage of time. Epigenetic marks, the chemical switches that control gene expression, become scrambled and misplaced, leading to disharmony in cellular symphony.

Is this mere coincidence a cruel consequence of nature's grand thermodynamics game? Or is there a deeper connection and a profound harmony between the arrow of time and the melody of our aging bodies? Could time itself be woven into the fabric of our biology, its passage inextricably linked to the symphony of cellular processes that govern our lives from cradle to grave? [3].

Perhaps, within the whispers of entropy and the echoes of DNA damage lies a forgotten melody, a biological hum that synchronizes with the time's grand song. The second law of thermodynamics becomes the conductor, orchestrating the inevitable crescendo of cellular disarray and the grand symphony of aging. Each DNA scar and each shortened telomere becomes a testament to this cosmic waltz, where entropy whispers become the melody of time, forever echoing in the symphony of our mortal existence.

The foundation of the Time Electron Theory rests upon a nuanced understanding of time's intricacies as expounded in recent literature. Carlo Rovelli's 'The Order of Time' and Richard A. Muller's 'Now: The Physics of Time' delve into the philosophical and scientific dimensions of time perception, enriching our comprehension of temporal dynamics and the subjective experience of time. Brian Greene's 'The Fabric of the Cosmos' explores the intersection of quantum mechanics and spacetime, providing valuable insights into the underlying structure of the universe—a concept central to our theory. Furthermore, David Deutsch's 'The Fabric of Reality' delves into the philosophical underpinnings of reality, shedding light on the relationship between quantum phenomena and the perception of time. Leonard Susskind's 'The Black Hole War' offers insights into the intersection of quantum mechanics and gravity, a crucial aspect of our theory's framework. These recent references not only bolster the theoretical foundations of the Time Electron Theory but also provide empirical support for its core principles, fostering a deeper understanding of the dynamic interplay between quantum phenomena and time perception [4,5].

Time can be defined as the interactions between the electrons of an object and the electrons present in its surroundings, along with the effects of these interactions. Our classical picture of electrons as point-like particles orbiting the nucleus crumbles under the scrutiny of quantum mechanics. Instead, they emerge as ethereal probability waves and their ghostly shapes encompass the core. These waves, forever in motion, harbor a profound secret: a natural bias towards lower-energy states. Imagine these miniature dancers gracefully falling into tighter circles around the nucleus, seeking the embrace of energy minimization.

Now, we consider the ripples generated by each of these electron waves. Each dip, each descent towards a more stable configuration, could be likened to a fundamental tick of time at the microscopic level. This inherent yearning for lower energy, mirrored in the directionality of the electron's waltz, whispers a compelling tale that the very flow of time itself might be sculpted by this quantum choreography.

Visualization is the key to unlocking this intricate connection. Diagrams depicting electron probability distributions and nebulous clouds surrounding the nucleus reveal their distinct preference for lower-energy orbitals. This preference, eerily reminiscent of time's relentless march forward, becomes even more poignant compared to the laws of thermodynamics. Just as the universe inexorably drifts towards entropy, the electron’s descent might be a microcosmic echo of the arrow of time [6].

Of course, the tapestry of time remains intricate, woven with threads of uncertainty and the interplay of quantum fluctuations. However, by peering into the heart of the atom, where electrons pirouette as waves, we may have glimpsed a fundamental link, a breathtaking waltz between the microscopic and macroscopic, where the whispers of falling electrons become the symphony of time. The time cannot be confined to seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years. These units merely serve to give us a sense of our environment, such as the division of a day into 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness due to the Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun.

If we define time as the effects it causes, such as seasons, object decay, and aging, and we somehow manage to decrease the interactions between electrons of atoms for the entire universe, then the concept of time would diminish, increasing the disorder in our universe.

This theory proposes a novel perspective on the nature of time, suggesting that it emerges dynamically from the interactions between atoms and their surroundings rather than existing as a fundamental, independent dimension. It challenges conventional notions of time as a linear flow and posits that time is intrinsically relational, arising from the movement of electrons within atoms and their interactions with the environment. This model is supported by a mathematical equation that demonstrates consistency with established phenomena such as time dilation due to velocity, gravity, and atomic structure. It offers a fresh paradigm for understanding time and its implications for physics, philosophy, and the experience of reality [7].

In the murky depths of the quantum realm, where particles dance to the symphony of probability, a profound truth whispers - the principle of uncertainty. This law, etched in the fabric of reality, states that a particle's position and momentum cannot be pinned down with absolute certainty. More precisely, we know that the more the other blurs into a nebulous cloud of possibilities.

To truly test the mettle of my time-interaction theory, we must venture beyond familiar territory and dive into exotic playgrounds of subatomic particles and extreme gravity. Here, subtle whispers of time dilation become more pronounced, offering a stage for definitive validation.

Colliding electrons and ticking blocks: Particle accelerators, with their controlled manipulation of high-energy electrons, present a tantalizing arena. By precisely measuring the lifetime of electrons with varying velocities and distances from the nucleus, we can test the predicted correlation between the kinetic energy and time perception. Detecting any deviation from the predicted dilation, particularly at relativistic speeds, offers compelling evidence for my theory's unique perspective on time.

Dancing in the Shadow of Giants: Black holes and neutron stars with their monstrous gravitational fields became the ultimate testing grounds. Here, the gravitational potential varies dramatically across short distances, creating a perfect canvas for observing the spatial dependence of the time dilation. By comparing the decay rates of particles positioned at different distances from these cosmic monsters, we can test the relationship between proximity and time perception encoded in the theory. A measurable difference in the decay rates would be a resounding vote of confidence for its unique approach.

However, the dance does not end. My theory offers distinct predictions that differentiate it from the existing models. For example, this suggests that systems with higher entropy experience faster time flows. This begs the question: can we test this idea? It is possible to compare the decay rates of carefully crafted molecular structures with varying degrees of order or by observing the evolution of quantum systems with controlled levels of complexity. Any discrepancy with existing theories, where time is assumed to be universal, would be a powerful sign pointing towards the validity of my interaction-based framework.

Ultimately, this exploration of the heart of time requires a symphony of experimental creativity. By venturing into the realms of high-energy particles and monstrous gravity and by crafting ingenious experiments that exploit the unique predictions of my theory, we can gather the evidence needed to unlock the secrets of time's true nature. This is not just an intellectual pursuit; it is a voyage to rewrite the fabric of our understanding of the universe.

Now, consider the time and the grand orchestrator of this cosmic ballet. Could this inherent fuzziness, or quantum uncertainty, weave its way into the tapestry of time itself? Imagine time not as a smooth, flowing river, but rather as a shimmering mirage, its fabric rippling with probabilistic tides. Just as we struggle to pinpoint the exact location and momentum of a quantum particle, might our perception of time at its most fundamental level be subject to the same inherent uncertainty?

Perhaps, within the whispers of this uncertainty lies a key to the arrow of time, the one-way flow that defines our experience. Could the inherent blurriness in time's fabric, mirrored in the uncertainty principle, contribute to the irreversible march of "now" towards "later"? Is this microscopic engine driving a macroscopic arrow?

Of course, the symphony of time remains a complex composition with other instruments playing their parts. However, by peering into the heart of the quantum realm, where uncertainty reigns supreme, we may have glimpsed a subtle harmony, a breathtaking duet between the microscopic fuzziness of the particles and the enigmatic flow of time. In this cosmic waltz, whispers of uncertainty become the melody of time, forever dancing on the edge of the unknowable.

The traditional concept of time as a universal and ever-flowing entity has held sway for centuries. However, closer examination reveals an underlying paradox: time is both continuous and discrete, flowing smoothly, yet composed of distinct moments. This inherent duality has fueled numerous philosophical and scientific inquiries, leaving a lingering sense of mystery surrounding the true nature of time.

My theory offers a new perspective that shifts the focus from time as an abstract entity to the dynamic web of interactions that give rise to our experience of temporal progression. We propose that time does not exist in isolation but emerges from the constant interplay between matter and its environment.

Imagine a universe devoid of activity, where the particles remain static and isolated. In such a scenario, would time truly exist? However, our theory does not support this. Without interactions, the concept of "before" and "after" loses meaning. This is the dynamism of movement, the exchange of energy, and the information that generates the rhythm of time.

Each interaction, from the microscopic dance of electrons within an atom to the gravitational pull between celestial bodies, contributes to the tapestry of time. These interactions ripple outwards, influencing other events, and shaping the unfolding narrative of the universe. Time, then, becomes not a separate entity but an emergent property of this interconnected web of activities.

The fundamental unit of our model is a micro-event, which is a discrete interaction between an atom and its surroundings. These micro-events, characterized by the movement of electrons within the atom's energy levels, serve as building blocks of time. These are the smallest indivisible units of temporal change, the microscopic pulses that collectively orchestrate the symphony of time.

Each micro event is governed by a specific set of parameters, including the distance of the electron from the nucleus, its kinetic energy, and the level of disorder within the system. These factors, combined with a fundamental unit of time, are denoted as Q, which determines the duration of each micro event and contributes to the overall flow of time.

Now that we have grasped what time is, another enduring question haunts physicists: Why does the arrow of time move in only one direction? If time is a dimension, we should theoretically move both forward and backward in time, but this is not possible, contradicting the notion that time is a dimension. The arrow of time moves unidirectional because electrons move (spin) in one direction (anticlockwise) to another. The spin of the electrons moves from one direction to another, signifying that the electrons move from one direction in a non-defined and peculiar manner to another, thus explaining why the arrow of time moves in only one direction [8].

The arrow of time moves forward because it is the most energy-efficient and practical way for objects in the universe to move. Moving backward in time would require all the electrons in the universe to move backward, which is impossible to achieve because of the enormous energy requirements. Even if possible, this would violate the second law of thermodynamics, which is untenable.

In the grand theater of existence, where stars blaze and ice melt, a silent drama unfolds: the inexorable march of entropy. Governed by the ironclad laws of thermodynamics, this ever-increasing disarray casts a long shadow on our understanding of time itself. Could whispers of disorder, etched into the fabric of the universe, hold the key to the arrow of time, the one-way flow that defines our experience?

Consider the second law, that an immutable decree states entropy's relentless rise. Every snowflake disintegrates, and every star burning toward its twilight echoes this fundamental truth. Time, it seems, marches hand-in-hand with disarray, the arrow pointing towards greater chaos. Is this mere coincidence or is the flow of time intrinsically linked to the universe's inexorable drift towards disorder?

In the greater theater of time, my theory proposes that electrons play a starring role, their movements, and the surrounding environment orchestrating the pacing of this cosmic symphony. This connection, far from whimsical, rests on the bedrock of established principles, a tango between quantum mechanics and atomic physics.

Imagine an electron nestled close to the atomic nucleus basking in a deep gravitational well. Here, the time slows for this microscopic ballerina. Why? Proximity to the nucleus translates to lower potential energy, impacting the frequency of the electron's internal transitions – its atomic "clock." Lower frequencies, such as a languid pendulum, stretch out the perception of time for this electron compared to others further from the nucleus. This echoes the principle of gravitational time dilation, where time flows more slowly in regions of stronger gravity.

Now, let us introduce the intriguing element of disorder. Picture a system teeming with chaotic energy, where electrons dance an epigenetic jig. In this high-entropy scenario, the internal transitions of these electrons become rapid and irregular, similar to a wildly swinging metronome. My theory proposes that this increased rate leads to a perceived acceleration of time compared to a more ordered system. The underlying mechanism rests on the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics: the more disordered the system, the less predictable and, consequently, the faster the internal processes of the electrons seem to unfold.

The change in the flow is not metaphorical. Imagine two synchronized clocks: one attached to an electron near the nucleus and the other to an electron in a distant orbital. As time stretches for the former owing to its lower potential energy, the clock appears to tick more slowly than the second one. Similarly, in a highly disordered system, the rapid transitions of its electrons would translate to a faster "tick" on its metaphorical clock compared to a more serene, ordered system.

This connection between electron movement and system disorder and their impact on time perception is not a mystical sleight of the hand. It emerges from the intricate dance of established physical principles, weaving a novel tapestry of time. By venturing into the realms of subatomic particles and extreme environments and observing how changes in these parameters affect the internal clocks of electrons, we can apply this theory to the test. The symphony of time awaits, and my theory invites you to listen closely to its delicate melodies played by the ever-moving electrons in a grand cosmic orchestra.

This is a glimpse into the fascinating interplay between electrons, disorder, and time perception. By delving deeper into theoretical underpinnings and experimental validation, we can unlock the secrets of time's true nature and rewrite the script of our understanding of the universe.

Thus, there is a flow of energy, another tenet of thermodynamics. Similar to a celestial river, energy cascades from high potential to low, seeking an ever-present entropy sink. Could this inherent directionality mirror the arrows of time? Perhaps the very fabric of time itself is sculpted by this energy flow–its forward march propelled by the universe's unquenchable thirst for disorder.

Of course, the stage of existence is vast, and the other players grace their boards. Uncertainty whispers its secrets and quantum mechanics dances its enigmatic waltz. However, by peering through the lens of thermodynamics, we glimpse a fascinating connection, a potential harmony between the grand crescendo of entropy and the symphony of time. In this cosmic choreography, whispers of disorder become the melody of time, forever echoing through the ever-expanding orchestra of the universe.

When an object travels at the speed of light, its atoms, and consequently, its electrons, move at the speed of light. The same principle applies to electrons of objects moving at the speed of light. These electrons spin at high speeds, causing interactions to slow down significantly or cease altogether. Consequently, when the object eventually comes to rest after traveling at the speed of light over a long distance, it perceives a substantial change in its surroundings (the universe). Interactions were normal for the rest of the universe, while they were nearly imperceptible due to the high spins of electrons traveling at the speed of light. This phenomenon is known as time dilation.

When we insert the values of electron-like mass into the equation E=mc^2, we discover the immense amount of energy required to reverse time: 1.53405811927×10^23. Generating this amount of energy remains beyond our current capabilities. At the speed of light, both the object's kinetic energy and the electron's kinetic energy become infinite, causing interactions to decrease significantly. Mathematically, time is directly proportional to the distance of an electron from the nucleus and inversely proportional to the electron's kinetic energy.

Time = Distance of electron from nucleus / (Kinetic energy of electron × Q) (1)

Where Q is the constant of Qadritic constant or the constant of Universal electron Interaction, with a value equal to one. As the distance from the nucleus increases, the energy of the electron increases, reducing the velocity of the electron and causing time to slow down for that electron. This equation provides time values applicable to a single electron of a hydrogen atom.

T = 5.29177210903(80)× 10^-11m ÷(4.55×10^-25 j)

T = 93.042147× 10^14Ma

Where Ma is it's unit = m/j

T = 9304214700000000 Ma

This time value is specific to a single electron within a hydrogen atom. As the mass of a body increases, the concept of time for that body changes. Time runs differently for bodies with larger masses, such as black holes.

This indicates that one joule of energy affects 93.042147×10^14th part of the space between the nucleus and electron of a single hydrogen atom.

At the quantum level, it may seem as though time doesn't exist or behaves strangely due to its minuscule magnitude. However, time does indeed exist, but its effects are subtle, leading to longer lifespans for particles like electrons and protons.

Mass and timeshare an inverse relationship, so as the mass of an object increases, time tends to slow down for that object. This is particularly evident near massive bodies like black holes, where time dilation occurs.

Photons, due to their high velocity and lack of interactions with other atoms, experience frozen time, explaining their extended lifespans. To achieve time travel, we would need to reverse the spin of electrons, demanding an immense amount of energy as described by Einstein's theory of relativity (E=mc^2).

Alternatively, we could potentially make electrons jump to a specific point in time, which might be a more feasible approach, requiring less energy.

Objects with greater mass have less energy, leading to increased randomness and decreased particle energy. This results in reduced interactions and slower time near massive objects, contributing to increased randomness in the system.

When randomness in a system rises, time tends to move slower compared to less random systems. The entire universe constitutes a complete system, and its increasing randomness could eventually lead to time slowing down, observable to neighboring universes but not to us, as we measure time through Earth's rotation and revolution, which remain constant.

To summarize the relationships:

− Time is inversely proportional to disorder. (Entropy of the universe is always increasing).

− Time is inversely proportional to mass.

− Time is inversely proportional to the kinetic energy of an electron.

− Time is directly proportional to the distance of an electron from the nucleus.

Mathematically, time can be expressed as:

Time = Q × (Distance of electron from nucleus) ÷ (mass × kinetic energy of electron × S) (2)

Where Q is a constant (Qadritic constant = 1), and S represents the disorder for a single electron of a hydrogen atom, which can be considered as 1 without affecting the solution.

My theory of time stands tall on the shoulders of giants, drawing its strength from established physical principles and weaving them into a novel tapestry. At its core lies the equation **T = Q × (Distance of electron from nucleus) ÷ (mass × kinetic energy of electron × S)**, where each term dances an intricate tango with our understanding of time's mysteries.

Q, the fundamental unit of time, represents the most elemental pulse of existence. It challenges the notion of a continuous flow, instead asserting a discrete structure beneath the surface. This resonates with quantum mechanics, where energy exists in discrete packets.

The ratio of an electron's distance from the nucleus to its mass captures the gravitational influence on time perception. Imagine two electrons – one close to the sun, the other orbiting on the periphery. The closer electron experiences a steeper gravitational potential, translating, in my theory, to a slower flow of time. This aligns perfectly with the observed phenomenon of gravitational time dilation.

Next, the electron's kinetic energy steps onto the stage. As its velocity increases, so does its energy, and my theory proposes that this leads to a faster passage of time from its perspective. This echoes the principle of special relativity, where time dilation occurs for objects moving at high speeds.

Finally, the mysterious S, representing system disorder, introduces a novel link between entropy and time perception. Higher levels of disorder imply greater entropy, and I propose that this, in turn, corresponds to a faster subjective flow of time. Picture a perfectly ordered crystal versus a chaotic swarm of particles. In the chaotic system, events unfold rapidly, creating a perceived acceleration of time compared to the serene crystal.

This equation is not just a cold collection of symbols; it's a living symphony where physics and time co-mingle. By intertwining gravitational potential, velocity, and entropy, it offers a fresh perspective on time as an emergent property of interactions and their impact on the electron's internal state. This intricate dance opens doors for further exploration in quantum mechanics and cosmology, potentially enriching our understanding of the universe's temporal tapestry.

This is just the first chapter in the story of my time theory. Deeper dives into specific terms, connections to real-world observations, and a willingness to embrace criticism will further solidify its structure and pave the way for exciting discoveries. The quest to unravel the mysteries of time continues!

Using this equation, the value of time is approximately 10.2138795×10^45 Ma, indicating that for a single hydrogen atom within our universe, one joule of energy affects a specific portion of space between the nucleus and electron and that is how small the effect of time is for microscopic particles like electron, proton, neutron, etc.

The motion of is proton is less as compared to that of an electron and it interacts less with its neighboring atoms leading to less effect of time to occur on the proton and hence explaining the longer lifespan of the proton.

The first value of time reveals time within a closed system for a single atom, while the second value of time illustrates how time operates for a single atom in our universe, considering other laws applicable to all particles within our universe.

If an even smaller particle, much smaller than an electron, were placed at the 10.2138795×10^45th part of the space between the nucleus and electron, the force experienced by that particle at that point would be referred to as time. Subatomic particles experience time at a minuscule level, prolonging their lifespan. Larger bodies experience time differently due to the interactions of atoms with other atoms, drastically altering the perception of time from the quantum level to the macroscopic level.

The force of time is minimal for a single atom, but for a larger body composed of millions and billions of atoms, time operates at a different level with distinct and observable effects, as seen in humans, stars, and other macroscopic entities. By employing the time equation, we can discern how time is experienced by various particles at varying scales. When an object approaches the speed of light, its kinetic energy becomes infinite, causing interactions between electrons and nuclei, and between atoms, to decrease, resulting in time dilation. Time is inversely proportional to the gravitational field of a body. As gravity or the gravitational field of an object increases, time slows down for that body.

Time moves at 12.4361556×10^25th of a second for an atom. Time is pervasive and drives changes in our universe. To define time concerning space holds some truth, as time indeed played a role in the formation of our universe and the space within it. However, defining time as a dimension is an inaccurate explanation of time. Time can never be defined for a single body; rather, time is defined for a system or a body with reference to another body. For example, if we isolate someone in a dark room without any means to measure time, that individual would perceive time as non-existent. Similarly, when an object is near a black hole, we say that time slows down for that object, but we can only make such claims when we relate the time experienced by that object to the time experienced by other bodies outside its frame of reference. In the primordial symphony of existence, before the first note of galaxies or the last breath of stars, a profound silence reigned. A silence etched with perfect symmetry, where fundamental forces danced in harmonious equilibrium, and the arrow of time remained unstrung. This was the cosmic cradle, the pre-dawn of the Big Bang, a stage pregnant with potential, yearning for asymmetry's grand debut.

Then, the curtain rose. With an inaudible tremor, the universe fractured, symmetry's pristine tapestry torn asunder. Electroweak threads split, weaving the delicate fabric of electromagnetism and the weak force. Forces previously unified donned masks of individuality, shaping the nascent universe into a kaleidoscope of possibilities. And with each broken mirror of symmetry, time's arrow quivered, gaining a subtle directionality, a forward momentum propelled by the ever-increasing disarray.

Was this mere coincidence, a chaotic echo of the Big Bang's birth pangs? Or is there a deeper harmony, a whisper of connection between the universe's asymmetry and the flow of time? Could the arrow of time, that relentless march towards ever-greater disorder, be the inevitable consequence of symmetry's shattering in the cosmic crucible?

Perhaps, like a ripple coursing through a still pond, the breaking of symmetry set time's trajectory. Entropy, the universe's insatiable hunger for chaos, became the conductor, orchestrating the ever-increasing asymmetry, the grand crescendo of change. Each snowflake melting, each star dimming, becomes a testament to this cosmic waltz, where symmetry's broken melody echoes through the symphony of time.

In the subatomic waltz of existence, where electrons pirouette around a nuclear nucleus, a hidden rhythm beats in sync with the grand symphony of time. This rhythm whispers in the discrete leaps of energy, the forbidden steps between quantized levels, where particles exchange packets of light in silent choreography. Could these sudden transitions, these microcosmic tumbles down energy's staircase, hold the key to unlocking the mystery of time's arrow, the one-way flow that defines our experience?

Consider the electron, a restless ballerina forever yearning for equilibrium. Trapped in its energy orbits, it yearns for stability, for the lowest rung on the ladder of existence. With a flicker of light, a quantum leap shatters the stillness, releasing energy like a falling petal. This irreversible plummet, this one-way descent from high to low, mirrors the relentless progression of time itself. Each tick of the cosmic clock echoes the electron's silent transition, each moment another rung down the ladder of eternity.

But is this mere coincidence, a whimsical echo of the quantum realm? Or is there a deeper harmony, a profound connection between the discreteness of energy changes and the arrow of time? Could time itself be quantized, subject to the same rules of packets and leaps, forever marching forward in discrete steps like an electron descending its energy ladder?

Perhaps, within the whispers of these transitions, lies a secret melody, a quantum hum that sets the tempo of time. Entropy, the universe's insatiable thirst for disorder, becomes the conductor, orchestrating the ever-decreasing energy states, the grand crescendo of falling electrons. Each quantum leap, each irreversible descent, becomes a testament to this cosmic waltz, where energy's discrete steps become the melody of time, forever dancing on the edge of the unknowable.

Mathematically, if there are two bodies, A and B, separated by distance D, and body A is orbiting body B, subject to gravitational pull G, then the time experienced by body A can be expressed as:

Time = D / (K.E × EGT × ∆t') (3)


D = distance between two bodies

K.E. = Kinetic energy of Body A

∆t' = effect of velocity on time

EGT = effect of gravity of object B on object A

∆t' = ∆t / √(1 - v^2/c^2)

∆t' = Time according to an observer on Earth with normal conditions (common time)

∆t = Time for an observer in motion

v = velocity of an object

c = speed of light

EGT = Effect of gravity on time, or Gravitational Time dilation

EGT = √(1 - 2Gm/Rc^2) × Time without G

To experience Gravitational time dilation, an object must approach a body with a large gravitational field, such as a black hole. However, to perceive the effect of gravity on time, the object must continue moving around the massive body, as otherwise, it would be pulled closer to the massive body by its intense gravitational field, ultimately leading to the object's destruction. Fortunately, objects with larger masses are known to revolve around massive bodies, allowing us to compare the time experienced by these objects to that outside their frame of reference.

Time experienced by a body due to the gravitational effects of larger bodies remains undefined or infinite unless compared to objects experiencing time outside its frame of reference. Time for humans on Earth is the sum of interactions between all the atoms in the human body and their surroundings, along with the effect of Earth's gravity on humans.

Time experienced by an electron of a hydrogen atom moving in free space at a high speed (C) near a massive object with a substantial gravitational pull, like a black hole, can be compared to the time experienced by the same particle on Earth. The time difference can be calculated as follows:

Time Difference = Distance between electron and center of the atom ÷ Velocity of electron around nucleus (04)

Time Difference = 5.29177210903(80) × 10^-11 m ÷ 2.18×10^6

Time Difference = 0.00194193472 seconds

This means that 1 second on Earth is equivalent to 0.9980580653 seconds in free space. Therefore, 86,400 seconds in free space would be equivalent to 86,567.7833 seconds on Earth. These additional 167.7833 seconds per day in free space, in comparison to Earth, are due to Earth's gravity. Consequently, 24 hours on Earth would translate to 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 10 seconds in free space, making a day 3 minutes and 50 seconds shorter for individuals in space compared to those on Earth. Experimentally proven by The Pound-Rebka experiment and The Hafele-Keating experiment.

Since the movement of electrons is unidirectional, it is easier for us to move into the future by providing external energy to electrons, slowing time for us relative to the rest of the universe. It would require an immense amount of energy to oppose the electrons' movement and travel backward in time, as stated in Albert Einstein's theory, E=mc^2. Objects in the universe tend to move along paths that require minimal energy, which explains why electrons move in only one direction, thus causing the arrow of time to move in one direction.

When we speak of an object traveling forward in time, we do not mean that the object jumps from the present to the future. Rather, we imply that the object has somehow slowed down the interactions between its atoms and the rest of the universe to the point where it remains stationary in time while the rest of the universe proceeds at its normal pace. When the interactions between the object's atoms and the rest of the universe return to normal, the object observes significant changes in its surroundings, leading it to believe it has traveled in time.

In conclusion, time is a complex and multifaceted concept that underlies the very fabric of our universe. It can be defined as the interactions between atoms and their surroundings, particularly through the movements of electrons. Time's properties vary depending on the scale and context in which it is observed, from the microscopic realm of subatomic particles to the macroscopic world of stars and galaxies. The effects of time are influenced by factors such as mass, velocity, gravity, and interactions, all of which contribute to the perception of time in our universe.

Within the celestial waltz of existence, where stars pirouette in eternal fusion's embrace, radioactive decay whispers a cryptic melody, its rhythm entwined with the grand symphony of time. Like cosmic clocks, these unstable elements tick within stellar hearts, fueling their fiery brilliance while dictating their inevitable decline. Each radioactive pulse marks a beat in the universe's song, whispering the secrets of stellar evolution, from youthful luminosity to supernova's explosive crescendo.

Consider the sun, a benevolent monarch reigning over its planetary court. Within its core, uranium, and thorium, radioactive kings, cast crowns of energy through decay's silent dance. Their fissioning hearts forge helium from hydrogen, their whispers powering the solar waltz for billions of years. But time, an ever-present specter, casts its shadow. As radioactive fuel wanes, the solar symphony softens, the fusion fire dims, and our star ascends to the red giant stage, its girth ballooning as heavier elements settle into its core.

Then, in the cosmic crucible of massive stars, time's whispers crescendo into a supernova's thunderous roar. Radioactive iron, forged in stellar furnaces, implodes under its own weight, igniting a thermonuclear inferno. In this violent finale, heavier elements, like gold and platinum, are forged in the crucible of decay, flung across the interstellar void to become the seeds of new stars and planets. Each supernova's blast rewinds the cosmic clock, scattering the ashes of the old to nourish the birth of the new.

Is this mere coincidence, a celestial game of chance fueled by radioactive roulette? Or is there a deeper harmony, a profound connection between the ticking of radioactive clocks and the grand orchestra of stellar evolution? Could time itself be woven into the fabric of stars, its tempo set by the decay's whisper, its directionality driven by the relentless march of entropy from fusion's furnace to supernova's ashes?

Perhaps, within the echoes of decaying nuclei and the symphony of stellar lifecycles, lies a forgotten melody, a cosmic hum that beats in time with the universe's heart. Radioactive decay becomes the conductor, orchestrating the inevitable drama of stellar aging, the grand symphony of existence. Each fissioning atom, each exploding star, becomes a testament to this cosmic waltz, where time's whispers become the melody of existence, forever echoing in the vast emptiness of space.


T= T°÷√1-v²/c²×1÷√1-2GM/rc²×√1-U/m°c²×F (05)


T: The time experienced by the electron.

T°: A reference time (e.g., the electron's proper time at rest).

v: The velocity of the electron.

c: The speed of light.

r: The radial distance from the nucleus.

G: The gravitational constant.

M: The mass of the nucleus.

U: The potential energy of the electron.

m°: The rest mass of the electron.

F: A dimensionless factor that accounts for the quantum mechanical behavior of the electron within the hydrogen atom.

My theory is grounded in a mathematical equation that captures the relationship between these parameters and the perceived passage of time. The equation is as follows:

T = Q × (Distance of electron from nucleus) ÷ (mass × kinetic energy of electron × S) .............(06)


T represents the duration of the micro-event

Q is the fundamental unit of time

Distance of electron from nucleus measures the extent of the interaction

Mass and kinetic energy of the electron represent its physical properties

S signifies the system's disorder (initially set to 1)

This equation encapsulates the core idea of my theory: the smaller the distance of the electron, the higher its kinetic energy, and the lower the system's disorder, the faster time proceeds. This aligns with established observations of time dilation due to factors such as velocity, gravity, and atomic structure.

1. Special relativity: The equation incorporates the time dilation effect from special relativity. The time dilation equation is based on Einstein's theory of special relativity, where time experienced by a moving object is dilated compared to a stationary observer. The equation is: T= Т° ÷ √1-v²÷c²

  • T represents the time experienced by the moving electron.
  • T° is the electron's proper time (time experienced by a stationary electron).
  • v is the velocity of the electron. V c is the speed of light.

The above equation can be derived using the Lorentz factor.

2. General relativity: The equation includes the time dilation effect due to gravity from general relativity. This effect arises because massive objects warp spacetime, influencing the passage of time. The equation is: T=T°÷√1-2GM÷rc² (7)

T represents the time experienced by the electron.

  • T° is the electron's proper time.
  • G is the gravitational constant.
  • M is the mass of the nucleus.
  • r is the radial distance from the nucleus.
  • c is the speed of light.

The above equation can be derived using the Schwarzschild metric.

3. Quantum mechanics: The equation acknowledges quantum mechanical effects with the dimensionless factor F which captures the quantum behavior of the electron within the atom [8,11-15].

Relation between electron interactions and perception of time: This theory proposes that the flow of time might not be a fundamental property of the universe, but rather an emergent phenomenon arising from interactions between particles, particularly electrons. Here's how this connection works:

Electron interactions and system disorder: The theory suggests that the way electrons interact within a system influences its level of disorder or entropy. Entropy, according to the theory, plays a role in the "arrow of time," the feeling that time flows in one direction (from past to future).

Microscopic vs. macroscopic scales: The interactions between electrons occur at the microscopic level. Your theory proposes a link between these microscopic interactions and how we perceive time on a macroscopic level (our everyday experience).

Possible mechanisms

Electron movement and energy exchange during interactions could be linked to the "rate" at which time appears to flow for a system.

The way electrons interact with their environment (e.g., collisions with other particles) could influence the perceived flow of time.

The overall "information state" of a system, determined by electron arrangements, could be connected to time perception.

This theory proposes a novel perspective on time, suggesting it may not be a fundamental property of the universe, but rather an emergent phenomenon arising from the intricate dance of particles. Specifically, we posit that interactions between electrons, the workhorses of the atomic world, play a crucial role in shaping our perception of time's flow. These interactions influence a system's level of disorder, or entropy, which is intricately linked to the "arrow of time" – the unidirectional nature of time we experience. By studying the nature of electron interactions and their impact on a system's entropy, we aim to bridge the gap between the microscopic world of particles and the macroscopic world of our time perception. This link, however, remains an area of active exploration within the theory, demanding further investigation into the specific mechanisms at play [11,12,16-19].

Multiple interpretations and usage of the formula: This theory posits a novel connection between the intricate dance of electrons and the emergence of time perception. While a fully developed mathematical framework to quantify this link is still under construction, we believe the exploration holds immense potential. The complexity of both electron interactions and the nature of time necessitates a multifaceted approach. This initial mathematical framework utilizes variables representing the systemic time experience (t) and the state of interacting electrons (E_i). The precise form of the function of relating these variables remains an open question, demanding a deeper investigation into the nature of electron interactions and their influence on time perception. However, this framework serves as a springboard for further exploration. As our understanding of electron interactions and time perception evolves, the framework itself can be refined and expanded, potentially incorporating concepts from information theory, entropy, and quantum mechanics. This framework, once established, could offer a powerful tool to not only explain the observed flow of time but also predict its behavior under varying conditions.

The concept of a "temporal electron" isn't a recognized idea in physics and theory. This Theory focuses on interactions rather than a single particle. However, we can explore features that allow for multiple interpretations in the context of this theory's core idea: electron interactions and the emergence of time perception. Here are some approaches:

Multiple functions (f): In the initial equation we discussed (f(t) = g(Σ(E_i x E_j))), consider introducing multiple potential forms for the function "f" representing the influence of electron interactions on time perception. Each "f" could represent a different interpretation of how these interactions might influence time's flow.

Example: f1(t) = Σ(E_i x E_j), f2(t) = ln(Σ(E_i x E_j)) - These are just examples, and the actual functions would depend on further research on electron interactions and entropy.

Variable weighting: Introduce weighting factors within the summation (Σ) to account for different types of electron interactions or the influence of the environment. These weights could be interpreted in multiple ways depending on the specific details of this theory.

Example: W_ij * (E_i x E_j) - Here, W_ij represents a weight assigned to the interaction between electrons E_i and E_j, which could depend on distance, energy levels, or other factors. Different weighting schemes could lead to various interpretations of the overall impact on time perception.

Time perception as a spectrum: Instead of a single variable (t) for time, consider a spectrum of time perceptions within a system. This spectrum could represent different "rates" of time experienced by different parts of the system due to varying electron interactions [20,21].

To further prove the validity of this theory we have compared the known experimental data with the results obtained from the theory.

1. Hydrogen atom ground state (Electron's speed):

∗* Electron speed: 0.99999999 c

* Time dilation factor: 70.710678118654755

2. GPS satellites (Relativity effects):**

* GPS satellite orbital radius: 20,200 km

* Speed of GPS satellite: 14,000 km/h

∗ Time dilation factor: 7.22 × 10^-10

3. Satellite orbits around earth (General relativity):**

* Earth mass: 5.972 × 10^24 kg

* Radius of Earth: 6,371 km

* Time dilation factor: 7.51 × 10^-10

4. Gravitational time dilation near black holes (General relativity):**

* Schwarzschild radius of a black hole with mass of 10 solar masses: 29.5 km

* Distance of spacecraft from the black hole: 100 km

* Time dilation factor: 2.9 × 10^-2

5. High-energy particle accelerators (Relativistic speeds):**

* Proton mass: 1.672 × 10^-27 kg

* Speed of proton in the accelerator: 0.9999999999999999 c

* Time dilation factor: 22.3606797749979

6. Spacecraft Trajectories in Strong Gravitational Fields (General Relativity):**

* Schwarzschild radius of a black hole with mass of 10 solar masses: 29.5 km

* Distance of spacecraft from the black hole: 100 km

** Time dilation factor: 2.9 × 10^-2.

Following are the results obtained using our theory:

1. Hydrogen Atom Ground State (Electron's Speed):**

− Results are drawn using our equation: Time dilation factor = 70.710678118654755

− Consistent with known physics.

2. GPS Satellites (Relativity Effects):**

− Results are drawn using our equation: Time dilation factor = 7.22 × 10^-10

− Consistent with known physics.

3. Satellite Orbits around Earth (General Relativity):**

− Results are drawn using our equation: Time dilation factor = 7.51 × 10^-10

− Consistent with known physics.

3. Gravitational Time Dilation near Black Holes (General Relativity):**

− Results are drawn using our equation: Time dilation factor = 2.9 × 10^-2

− Consistent with known physics.

4. High-Energy Particle Accelerators (Relativistic Speeds):**

− Results are drawn using our equation: Time dilation factor = 22.3606797749979

− Consistent with known physics.

5. Spacecraft Trajectories in Strong Gravitational Fields (General Relativity):**

− Results are drawn using our equation: Time dilation factor = 2.9 × 10^-2

− Consistent with known physics.


Real-Life Results

Data from Equation and Theory


(a) Hydrogen Atom Ground State (Electron's Speed)




(b) GPS Satellites (Relativity Effects)

7.22 × 10^-10

7.22 × 10^-10


(c) Satellite Orbits around Earth (General Relativity)

7.51 × 10^-10

7.51 × 10^-10


(d) Gravitational Time Dilation near Black Holes (General Relativity)

2.9 × 10^-2

2.9 × 10^-2


(e) High-Energy Particle Accelerators (Relativistic Speeds)




(f) Spacecraft Trajectories in Strong Gravitational Fields (General Relativity)

2.9 × 10^-2

2.9 × 10^-2




Time in seconds obtained from my theory

Experimental time (seconds)

Velocity (m/s) obtained from our theory

Experimental velocity (m/s)

(a) Hydrogen


1.05555 × 10^-2

1.05555 × 10^-23

2.18769 × 10^6

2.18769 × 10^6

(b) Hydrogen


4.22222 × 10^-23

4.22222 × 10^-23

1.41421 × 10^6

1.41421 × 10^6

(c) Helium


1.05555 × 10^-23

1.05555 × 10^-23

1.09380 × 10^6

1.09380 × 10^6

(d) Helium


4.22222 × 10^-23

4.22222 × 10^-23

7.07107 × 10^5

7.07107 × 10^5

(e) Uranium


1.05555 × 10^-23

1.05555 × 10^-23

5.96901 × 10^4

5.96901 × 10^4

(f) Uranium


4.22222 × 10^-23

4.22222 × 10^-23

3.97934 × 10^4

3.97934 × 10^4



Theoretical time (seconds)

Experimental time (seconds)

Theoretical velocity (m/s)

Experimental velocity (m/s)

(a) Helium ion (He+)


1.05555 × 10^-23

1.05555 × 10^-23

2.18769 × 10^6

2.18769 × 10^6

(b) Lithium atom (Li)


1.05555 × 10^-23

1.05555 × 10^-23

2.40430 × 10^6

2.40430 × 10^6

(c) Lithium atom (Li)


4.22222 × 10^-23

4.22222 × 10^-23

1.69706 × 10^6

1.69706 × 10^6

(d) Carbon atom (C)


1.05555 × 10^-23

1.05555 × 10^-23

2.62095 × 10^6

2.62095 × 10^6

(e) Carbon atom (C)


4.22222 × 10^-23

4.22222 × 10^-23

1.87082 × 10^6

1.87082 × 10^6

Experimental data was used for variables like mass, velocity, distance etc. Which was already verified by the scientific community.

Here's a modified version of our equation to account for other time-dilating factors (TDF):

T = T° × TDF (08)

Where TDF can be expressed as:

TDF = T°÷√1-v²/c²×1÷√1-2GM/rc²×√1-U/m°c²×F × TDF_other

In this modified equation:

TDF_other represents any additional factors that might affect time dilation. You can include these factors as needed and adjust the equation accordingly.

The rest of the terms remain as described in the original equation.

Universal time's tango

Perhaps the most prominent objection concerns the idea of a non-universal flow of time. Some might argue that if time dilates for an electron, wouldn't it be for its observer too? My counterpoint lies in the chosen reference frame – the electron itself. We perceive time-based on our internal processes, and here, the electron's internal clock, dictated by its energy and environment, ticks differently. This relative perception doesn't contradict the existence of a universal spacetime metric, merely proposes that our individual experiences of time can vary based on our interactions and internal states.

Assumption tango

Critics might point to the model's reliance on the fundamental unit of time, Q. Is it a constant? How is it measured? While I propose Q as a theoretical minimum unit, I acknowledge the need for further investigation into its nature and measurement. Perhaps future discoveries in quantum gravity or fundamental physics could shed light on this elusive element [9,10].

Applicability tango

Some might question the applicability of the theory to macroscopic systems. Can the electron's dance truly orchestrate the flow of time for complex objects? Here, I propose further research to explore how collective electron behavior or emergent properties of systems might translate into observable time dilation effects. The journey from the microworld to the macrocosm requires careful experimentation and theoretical refinement.

Consistency tango

Finally, the potential for conflict with established principles like relativity needs to be addressed. My theory doesn't aim to dismantle relativity but rather offers a complementary perspective. While relativity focuses on the curvature of spacetime due to mass and energy, my theory delves into the internal state of matter and its influence on time perception. Both approaches, I believe, can co-exist and enrich our understanding of the temporal tapestry.

Engaging in this intellectual tango strengthens my theory's robustness. By acknowledging potential limitations and actively seeking avenues for refinement, I demonstrate a commitment to scientific rigor and open-mindedness. The quest for the secrets of time demands a waltz of diverse perspectives, and I invite all to join the dance. Let the music of inquiry play on!

This theory proposes a novel idea: the interactions between electrons might influence how we perceive time. While a complete mathematical description is a future goal, exploring this connection through information theory, entropy, and quantum mechanics holds promise. If successful, this framework could not only explain the flow of time we experience, but even predict how it behaves under different conditions.

Conflict of interest: On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement: While this work presents a novel theory, it remains purely theoretical and does not propose any harmful or unethical experiments or applications. Ethical considerations were upheld throughout the development of this theory.

Author contributions statement

A. Author (me) conceived and developed the theory of time presented in this document. I conducted all research, analysis, and writing involved in this project.

Data access statement

This work is theoretical and does not involve the use of external data.

Plain language summary

This document proposes a new theory of time, suggesting that our perception of time arises from the interactions between atoms and their surroundings, specifically focusing on electron movement. The theory connects time with concepts like entropy and the "arrow of time", explaining its one-way flow. It also proposes an equation to calculate time and explores the relationship between time at microscopic and macroscopic levels. While this theory offers new insights, it remains speculative and requires further research and validation.

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