International Journal of Physics Research and Applications
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Introduction
International Journal of Physics Research and Applications (IJPRA) is an open access journal of Heighten Science Publications Inc (HSPI). The journal publishes significant and new papers in the form of Research, review, perspective, opinion and other different prevalent types of articles pertaining to the research done in different branches of physics. The journal is rigorously peer-reviewed by an international Board of scholars.
Reason for Publishing
The journal provides a platform for researchers who wish to publish and share their works globally and play a crucial role in future progress of physics. Physics challenges our imaginations and play a crucial to understanding the world around us. International Journal of Physics Research and Applications (IJPRA) supports Physics education and research by publishing articles and also inspires young researchers to expand their knowledge.Research ArticleDeriving the Average Change in Kinetic Energy of a Galaxy in Non-Relativistic MotionDev Sharma*2024-06-10 09:39:36This study presents a novel approach to calculating the average change in kinetic energy of galaxies exhibiting non-relativistic motion. The methodology integrates the dynamics of total observed motion, which encompasses both peculiar and recessive motion, with the gravitational influence of neighboring galaxies. The peculiar motion is quantified through peculiar redshift, while recessive motion is described by Hubble’s Law. The total observed velocity is the sum of these two components. The research derives an expression for the average acceleration of a galaxy based on the change in its total observed redshift wavelength over time. Utilizing Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the average observed force and subsequent work done by this force is calculated. The work done by conservative forces, primarily gravitational forces exerted by neighboring galaxies, is also considered to determine the total work done on the galaxy. Results indicate that the average total observed force causing the motion of a galaxy is a non-conservative force, resulting from the combined effects of non-conservative forces responsible for peculiar and recessive motion. The change in potential energy due to gravitational interactions with neighboring galaxies is accounted for, leading to the formulation of the average change in kinetic energy. The conclusion of the paper provides a comprehensive expression for the average change in kinetic energy of a galaxy, factoring in the mass of the galaxy, the speed of light, the total observed redshift, the change in distance with respect to Earth, and the gravitational constant. This expression is significant for understanding the dynamics of galactic motion and the forces at play in a non-relativistic context.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1087.pdf
Research ArticleStructural Morphology of Organic Waste-derived Fiber in X–band FrequencySirajo Abdullahi*, Yahya Abubakar Aliero2024-06-05 11:00:08Sawdust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking such as cutting, sanding, machining, planning, and routing. Saw dust consists of small woodcutting intending to study the structural morphology of organic waste fiber derived in an X-band frequency and synthesis of the rice dust and sawdust. The solid-state method was employed to mix the husk, to obtain the fine power, and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscope was used to determine the sample absorption rate. The FTIR results show that the best samples are 6.5 g and 6.5 g rice bark and sawdust, with an absorbance rate of 86% and 14% transmission, which will be used for the manufacture of electronic and communication devices.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1086.pdf
Research ArticleThe Use of Computed Tomography to Quantify Renal Calculi Strain to Estimate Potential Symptomatic IncidentsShatha F Murad*2024-05-21 16:24:49This study investigates into the historical evolution and contemporary applications of Computed Tomography (CT) in renal stone estimation, with a focus on the innovative use of CT to quantify renallcalculiistrain for estimating potentiallsymptomatic incidents.Historically, CT has played a pivotal role in diagnosing renal calculi, offering unparalleled sensitivity and specificity in detecting stones of varying composition and size. However, the clinical significance of renal calculi extends beyond mere detection, prompting researchers to explore novel approaches to predict symptomatic events associated with stone disease. This research aimed to determine the right way to classify asymptomatic radiographic calculi strain on computed tomography (CT) scans in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital, Al-Muthanna, Iraq. A survey was made available to calculi formers who had a CT scan during asymptomatic after a calculi clinical assessment. A survey and a study of medical records revealed symptomatic calculi route incidents after a CT scan. The amount of calculus, the biggest calculi thickness, electronic total calculi size (TSV), and two-pronged calculus were measured radiographically and linked as predictors of calculi events. There were 55 calculi formers in the study, and 61% had a calculi event one year after the CT scan. The calculus number was (0–1, 2–3, 4–6, 7), the highest calculi diameter was (0–2, 3–4, 5–7, 8 mm), and 48% had bilateral calculus. The number of calculus per quartile had a danger ratio of 1.30 (p = 0.001), the largest calculi diameter had a hazard ratio of 1.26 (p 0.001), TSV had a hazard ratio of 1.38 (p = 0.001), and bilateral calculus had a hazard ratio of 1.80 (p = 0.001). Only TSV wass an unbiased measure offsymptomaticceventssin multivariable regression (HR = 1.35 per quartile, p = 0.01). TSV-related incidents were also unaffected by demographics, urinary chemistry, or calculi composition. A drastic rise in TSV between CT scans (> 31 mm3/year) expected additional eventssin the 49 patients with interim events (HR = 2.8, p = 0.05). For calculating calculi pressure on CT scan, automated TSV is more accurate for asymptomatic events than physical approaches.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1085.pdf
Research ArticleQuantum System Dynamics: Harnessing Constructive Resonance for Technological Advancements, Universal Matter Creation and Exploring the Paradigm of Resonance-induced GravitySanjay Bhushan*2024-05-09 10:36:52The complex dynamics of constructive resonance are the main topic of this quantum physics study, along with its implications for matter generation, the unification of quantum and classical knowledge, and important technological developments. Space-time is conceptualized in terms of an interwoven fabric in which both linear and non-linear patterns are recorded in an information field. According to this paradigm, basic particle interactions that result in the development of the material universe are referred to as "Constructive Resonance Waves." A five-dimensional cosmos is shaped by the introduction of Cosmic Information (CI), which is essential since it is a basic base vector related to the dimensions of space and time. The Resonance-Induced Information Force Field (RIIFF) and Constructive Resonance are two new theoretical concepts that are introduced in this paper.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1084.pdf
Research ArticleElectronic and Thermo-Dynamical Properties of Rare Earth RE2X3 (X=O, S) Compounds: A Chemical Bond TheoryPooja Yadav, DS Yadav*, DV Singh2024-04-24 11:52:25The electrical, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of cubic structured rare earth sesqui-chalcogenides RE2X3 (RE = La-Lu, X = O, S) are examined in this work using the chemical bond theory of solids. For these materials, the values of the homopolar gaps (Eh), ionic gaps (Ec), and average energy gaps (Ep) have been assessed. It has been discovered that the calculated values of the homopolar gap (Eh) and average energy gap (Ep) are in great agreement with the values derived from the Penn and Phillips models. The electrical, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of these materials (RE2O3), such as their bulk modulus and heat of formation, have been estimated using the bond ionicity values. The computed values accord very well with the theoretical results that have been published thus far.PACS No.: 71.20.Eh, 71.15.Mb, 61.50.Ks, 71.15.Mb
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1083.pdf
Research ArticleStatistical Mathematical Analysis of COVID-19 at World LevelMarín-Machuca Olegario*, Carlos Enrique Chinchay-Barragán, Moro-Pisco José Francisco, Vargas-Ayala Jessica Blanca, Machuca-Mines José Ambrosio, María del Pilar Rojas-Rueda, Zambrano-Cabanillas Abel Walter2024-04-05 15:48:15Worldwide, statistical data of people infected by COVID-19 has been taken until March 29, 2023, which, when correlated, showed a predictive logistic model. The purpose was to determine the predictive model, which was acceptable, in such a way that the proportionality constant and the correlation and determination coefficients are of great importance to estimating epidemiological and pandemic data; coinciding with what was reported by other authors. Bearing in mind that a mathematical model is a mathematical description through a function or equation of a phenomenon in the real world; whose purpose is to understand infections and make predictions for the future. The stages were: to model the number of people infected as a function of time, formulate, and choose the logistic model, determine the model and obtain mathematical conclusions, and make predictions (estimates) about the number of people infected by COVID-19 worldwide. The logistic model was derived to predict the speed of people infected by COVID-19 and the critical time (tc = 733 days) for which the speed was maximum (1694,7209 infected/day). The Pearson correlation coefficient for the time elapsed (t) and the number of people infected (N) worldwide, based on 32 cases, was r = -0.88; the relationship between time and those infected is real, there is a “very strong correlation” between the time elapsed (t) and the number of people infected (N) and 77.03% of the variance in N is explained by t.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1082.pdf
Research ArticleTime Electron TheorySyed Munim Qadri*2024-04-05 15:43:58What is time? Is it a physical quantity, illusion, or dimension? Defining time is challenging and fascinating. We often consider time as a dimension to help us understand the concept of space-time. Time undeniably exists, but we can only sense its presence through its effects. For instance, if we take two apples, one bought months ago and the other just a day ago, we can tell that one apple was bought a long time ago because it had rotted. We express time as the effect caused by it. If there were no effects of time on this universe, then the concept of time would not exist [1,2].
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1081.pdf
Mini ReviewApproximation of Kantorovich-type Generalization of (p,q) - Bernstein type Rational Functions Via Statistical ConvergenceHayatem Hamal*2024-03-19 17:45:03In this paper, we use the modulus of continuity to study the rate of A-statistical convergence of the Kantorovich-type (p,q) - analogue of the Balázs–Szabados operators by using the statistical notion of convergence.Mathematics subject classification: Primary 4H6D1; Secondary 4H6R1; 4H6R5.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/
Mini ReviewThermoelectric Materials Based on Lead Telluride and Prospects for their Practical ApplicationYuriy Pavlovskyy*, Nadiya Pavlovska2024-02-20 15:40:52Lead telluride (PbTe) is considered one of the most promising materials in thermoelectrics due to its unique thermoelectric properties. This semiconductor exhibits a high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in certain temperature ranges, making it highly effective for converting heat energy into electricity. Additionally, PbTe is characterized by stability and low thermal conductivity, which further enhances the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Another advantage of using PbTe is its relative affordability and high availability of raw materials. This makes it attractive for manufacturing mass thermoelectric devices such as thermoelectric modules for automobiles, industrial thermoelectric generators, heat recirculation, and others. The paper provides a review of works and an analysis of general approaches to semiconductor thermoelectric materials, including lead telluride.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1079.pdf
Research ArticleOptimizing Milk Safety: Applying Nuclear Techniques in X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metal Quantification in Powdered Milk Consumed in SenegalPapa Macoumba Faye*, Djicknack Dione, Oumar Ndiaye, Moussa Hamady SY, Nogaye Ndiaye, Alassane Traore, Ababacar Sadikhe Ndao2024-02-09 11:38:08This study conducted an elemental analysis and assessed heavy metal concentrations in five powdered milk samples (V1, L1, H1, G1, and D1) from Senegal, utilizing X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The analysis focused on aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and chlorine (Cl). Aluminum was either undetected or found at negligible levels in all samples. Calcium levels consistently surpassed the Acceptable Maximum Level (AML) in all samples, with H1 exceeding the AML by approximately 11.1 times (27,745.06 ± 310.16 ppm). Potassium concentrations varied, with G1 exhibiting the highest levels, significantly exceeding the AML (51,058.15 ± 456.13 ppm), while V1 remained within acceptable limits. Chlorine concentrations generally complied with the AML, except for G1, which slightly exceeded the limit (3631.04 ± 31.23 ppm). Phosphorus concentrations in H1 were notably higher than the AML (13,750.94 ± 275.35 ppm). The non-uniformity in heavy metal concentrations among samples emphasizes the need for ongoing research and regulatory scrutiny to address potential risks and ensure the safety of powdered milk.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1078.pdf
Mini ReviewGeneration of Curved Spacetime in Quantum FieldSarfraj Khan2024-01-19 09:46:09To reach such a consistent theory which contains the quantum field theory of particle physics and Einstein’s theory of gravitation as limiting cases, one may proceed in the following way: Standard quantum field theory just ignores the effects of gravity. This is justified in many cases due to the weakness of gravitational interactions at the presently accessible scales. In a first step beyond this approximation, one may consider an external gravitational field that is not influenced by the quantum fields. Here one may think of sources of gravitational fields that are not influenced by the quantum fields under consideration, as high-energy experiments in the gravitational field of the earth or quantum fields in the gravitational field of dark matter and dark energy. This approach amounts to the treatment of quantum field theory on curved spacetimes. The problem of quantization in curved spacetimes is now clearly visible. In Minkowski spacetime, there is a large group of symmetries that enforces a particular choice of vacuum by demanding the vacuum to be invariant. Such a criterion is absent for a general spacetime (M,g). We therefore do not know which state to choose as the vacuum. One might hope that the different prescriptions might be unitarily equivalent such that it doesn’t matter which state one takes to define the theory. Sadly this is not the case: The Stone-Von Neumann theorem is no longer valid for systems with an infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This means that unitarily inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation relations will arise, and it is not clear which equivalence concept representation is the physical one. In the second section of this chapter, we review the notions of Cauchy surfaces and global hyperbolicity.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1077.pdf
Research ArticleMarkov Chains of Molecular Processes of Biochemical MaterialsOrchidea Maria Lecian2024-01-18 12:16:50Biochemical systems are analytically investigated after encoding the properties of the dynamics, which rule the time evolution of the transition properties, using some Markov models, such as the Hierarchical Markov-State Models. The present paper is aimed at analytically writing the (finite) Markov chain originating from the considered Markov models. Within this framework, the interaction with the environment is considered, and the ergodicity of the systems obtained from numerical simulation is controlled and compared with the qualities of the Markov chain. The (von Neumann) conditions to be imposed on the Bloch equations for the biomaterial structures to be described analytically in a consistent way are governed. The formalisms of the ’heat bath’ and that of the control of the numerical errors ensure the good measure-theoretical framework and the ergodicity of the finite chain, respectively.The finite Markov chains are investigated and the analytical expressions are presented, after which the Hierarchical Markov-State-Model provides the time evolution of the transition probabilities in biochemical systems.The notion of heat bath is used to describe the interactions of the biomaterial with the environment and thus to control the uses of the projection operators in the Markovian processes where the appropriate measure is defined; the stochastic equations allow one to obtain the wanted measure from the probability spaces.The cases in which a violation of the Markov property of the process occurs, i.e. in open systems, or dissipative processes are also considered. Furthermore, in complex molecules in biological systems, these features are investigated to be possibly even more dramatic. As far as molecular processes are concerned, this occurrence is associated with the appearance of chaotic effects with certain characteristics of potential surfaces: rather than the technique of isocommittors, the method of projectors in measure spaces is used for the Nakajima-Zwanzig paradigm for the density operator; this latter method complementary compares the time-convolution-less technique.The finite Markov chains are finally proven to be ergodic after the control of the numerical errors which provide the Sinai-Markov partitions to be applied for the analysis of the measure space of the Markov chain, that is, one endowed with a Hilbert measure. The von Neumann conditions are therefore newly demonstrated to be apt to be applied to the Bloch equations for biomaterial structures after the use of the notion of heat bath, from which the measure space arises.The qualities of the Hierarchical Markov-Sate Models which bring the analytical expression of the time evolution of probabilities of biomaterials are therefore newly analytically studied.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1076.pdf
Research ArticleThe Stability and Behaviour of the Superposition of Non-Linear Waves in SpaceChristopher O Adeogun2023-12-29 23:46:52The superposition of non-linear waves in space refers to the phenomenon where two or more waves overlap and combine to form a new wave pattern. Non-linear waves are characterized by their ability to interact with each other, leading to complex behaviors that are not observed in linear wave systems. Understanding the stability and behavior of the superposition of non-linear waves in space is crucial in various fields such as physics, engineering, and oceanography.When non-linear waves superpose, their interactions can lead to a range of behaviors, including wave breaking, formation of solitons (localized wave packets), and the generation of harmonics. The stability of the superposition is determined by the balance between the non-linear effects and dispersive effects, which can either stabilize or destabilize the wave pattern. In addition, the behavior of non-linear waves in space is influenced by external factors such as boundaries, dissipation, and external forcing.In this paper, we study the behavior and characteristics of waves when they interact with each other. Superposition refers to the phenomenon where multiple waves combine to form a resultant wave. In the case of linear waves, this superposition occurs according to the principles of linear superposition, which states that the displacement or amplitude at any point is the algebraic sum of the displacements or amplitudes of the individual waves.Understanding the superposition of linear waves in space has various applications in fields such as physics, engineering, acoustics, optics, and signal processing. By studying how waves interact and combine, researchers can gain insights into wave propagation, interference patterns, wave reflections, diffraction, and other phenomena that occur when waves meet.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1075.pdf
Research ArticleEnvironmental Effects on the Norbornadiene-quadricyclane Photoswitch for Molecular Solar Thermal Energy StorageChristian Danø,Kurt V Mikkelsen2023-12-29 01:01:29Today’s need for renewable energy combined with modern societies' reliability on on-demand power leads us to find solutions that can store excess or produce directly to storage for later use. A MOlecular Solar Thermal (MOST) based on norbornadiene/quadricyclane(NBD/QC) does the latter with an isomeric photoswitching molecule pair. The theoretical studies of molecular solar thermals (MOST) provide a needed understanding of potential synthetic candidates. We have investigated an array of more complex solvation models for the norbornadiene/quadricycle (NBD/QC) photoswitch and the impacts of the models on the first absorption energy. Our results have been obtained with various density functional theoretical methods and basis sets.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1074.pdf
Research ArticleAdjusted Hardy-Rogers-Type Result GeneralizationJayashree Patil, Basel Hardan*, Ahmed A Hamoud, Kirtiwant P Ghadle, Alaa A Abdallah2023-12-08 14:31:39The adjusted Hardy-Rogers result generalization for the fixed point is demonstrated in this study, validating our results utilizing an application.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1073.pdf
Research ArticleStudy the Influence of Laser Energy on the Surface Morphology of Copper Nanoparticles Prepared by Pulsed Laser Extirpation Method in LiquidMohammed Rasool Ahmed*, Taghreed N Jamil and Narimann Neamah Hussein2023-11-07 12:32:58A study reports a novel synthesis of pure copper and the effect of laser energy on optical properties and the particle size of colloidal copper nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL). Different laser energies (600,700,800 mJ) of pulsed laser (Nd: YaG) were used to prepare colloidal copper nanoparticles size of about (40.4 nm - 91.3 nm) which were measured using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The presence of Copper NPs in distilled water, respectively, with nanostructure in the shape of a spherical construction and size of about 50 nm were measured using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The absorption spectrum and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) were measured to study the optical properties of the prepared copper nucleus, and the results showed that the SPR and high optical density were found in the 320 wavelengths at the laser energy of (600 mJ), present at wavelength 333 to the laser energy (700 mJ) and shifted to a lower wavelength (blue shift) with a higher optical density, a wavelength of 341 at the laser energy of (800 mJ).
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1072.pdf
Research ArticleDesign and Development of a Dual-Volume Ionization Chamber for an Accident Monitor to Detect Gamma Radiation During Emergency Conditions in a Nuclear ReactorGirish Kumar Palvai*, G Dhanunjaya, K Venkateswar Rao, PC Swain2023-10-30 12:43:32A Gamma Ionization Chamber was developed for the purpose of high gamma radiation detection during accident conditions in a Light Water reactor. The pre-eminence of the detector is that it was designed and developed to monitor gamma exposure rates in the wide range of 100 mR/hr to 107 R/hr. The detector has an overall diameter of 90 mm with a length of 400 mm. The response of the detector is accurate and the sensitivity is within ± 6% over gamma energies ranging from 660 KeV to 1.25 MeV. The detector operates with a DC voltage of 500V. The V0.9 voltage is about 250V for 107 R/hr. The estimated operation life of the detector is about 20 years.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1071.pdf
Mini ReviewDevelopment of Gamma Flaw Detectors for Non-Destructive TestingUlugbek Ashrapov*, Ilkham Sadikov, Erkin Bozorov, Ismatilla Kamilov, Evgeny Kroshkin, Valery Nesterov2023-10-11 15:31:49The radiographic method of control is implemented by a set of control tools in the form of gamma flaw detectors, which are distinguished by: mobility, reliability, radiation safety, adaptability to a wide climatic range, ease of operation, and the ability to control products with small and large radiation thicknesses. The paper describes portable gamma flaw detectors manufactured by JSC NIITFA: Gammarid 2010R, UNIGAM R, Stapel-5 Se75 Ir192, Stapel-5 Se75W, gamma flaw detector γ-RID-75/80R and stationary gamma flaw detectors RID K-100 and RID K-400. Also paper describes a brief technology for the production of ionizing radiation sources Ir-192 with activity of 120 Curie, a technology for rolling the source holder with Ir-192 source and completing the Ir-192 source with a portable gamma flaw detector Gammarid-192/120M in the INP AS.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1070.pdf
ThesisPre-equilibrium Effects on Alpha Particle Induced Reactions on Niobium Isotope from Threshold upto 100MeV using the Computer Code COMPLETCherie Sisay Mekonen*, Teshagre Aklie Mekonen2023-10-04 14:24:02Excitation functions (EF) for four reactions of the type 93Nb (α, xn); x = 1-4 were studied. This study provides current evidences about the dominance of pre-equilibrium processes at high energies followed by compound nucleus equilibration at low energies. The main objective of the work is to look pre-equilibrium emission induced by alpha particle energies up to 100 MeV on Niobium through describing, analyzing and interpreting the theoretical results of cross sections obtained from computer code COMPLET by comparing with experimental data obtained from EXFOR library. COMPLET code has been used for the analysis using the initial exciton number n0 = 4(4p+oh) and level density parameter ACN/10. A general agreement was found for all reactions.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1069.pdf
Research ArticleFundamental Forces are not Fundamental as our 3-d Universe is Driven by an External Energy SourcePushpak N Bhandari*, Nandan M Bhandari2023-09-29 00:00:00Atom has been considered as a space of perfect vacuum and no energy loss takes place inside the atom. The purpose of the current research work is to prove that even fundamental particles receive energy from external sources for their motion. In order to prove this, the model of the solar system and its planets is selected. According to this proposed theory, even the gravitational attraction between planets and stars is due to external energy received through the hypothesized O- Dimension. O-dimension is a time-independent totally symmetric dimension filled with potential energy and it encircles every object from atom to galaxy as well as the whole Universe and imparts energy to the whole Universe. The gravitational force between two objects is a result of the energy shadow cast by them on each other. Mathematical model developed and applied to the Sun and planets in our solar system as well as Earth and moon and it fits with the values obtained by Newtonian theory, confirming the validity of the hypothesis.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1068.pdf
OpinionBlack Holes and Time: OpinionRiley Johnston*2023-09-15 14:38:56This opinion essay is about how singularities may exist in a different dimension than we are, and on black holes and their time correlations. It also briefly mentions another way the universe may have been created.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1067.pdf
Research ArticleDetermination of the Effect of Zinc Acetate as a Doped Substance on the Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanomaterials by using a Hydrothermal Interaction TechniqueMohammed Rasool Ahmed, Abdulkareem Thjeel Jabbar, Abdullah Hasan Jabbar*2023-09-14 00:00:00In the current work, cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) NPs were synthesized via the hydrothermal interaction technique. Especially, the deviation in zinc Acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 with 0.5% 1.5%, and 2.25% was examined for its part in nanoparticles size. The nanoparticle size seems to reduce from 149.7 nm to 116.3 nm by enhancing the zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2. With increasing zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 in CdS (Cadmium Sulfide) small lattice phase changes appeared due to angle peaks of diffraction shifting toward higher angle. The standard crystallite size and lattice parameters were analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. The average crystallite size and volume unit cell were found to increment with increasing Zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 concentrations. Absorption peaks in the UV visible spectra corresponding to zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 of CdS (Cadmium Sulfide) were analyzed at various wavelengths of 368 nm and 369 and 371nm. These findings show the tuning ability of structural, and optical characteristics of cadmium sulfide (CdS) NPs.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1066.pdf
Research ArticleUnsteady and Incompressible Magneto-Hydrodynamics Blood Flow in an Inclined Cylindrical ChannelLiaqat Hussain*, Salah Uddin, Asif Shahzad2023-08-18 09:52:05In the current study, the blood flow through an inclined cylindrical tube subjected to an external magnetic field is evaluated. The blood flow has been considered under the consequence of a transverse magnetic field. Previously the mathematical model was solved by using Caputo-Fabrizio (CF) fractional order derivative with a non-singular kernel which has the limitations like it fails to satisfy the fundamental theorem of fractional calculus. Whereas, in the present study Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) which is suitable for all types of linear and non-linear differential equations is used. The flow of magnetized blood in an inclined cylindrical tube has been studied by using the ADM. An external magnetic field and an oscillating pressure gradient drove the blood flow. ADM algorithm has been developed and used to find the Adomian solution. Computer software MATHEMATICA has been used to visualize the influence of various flow characteristics such as Hartmann number (Ha), different radial locations and angle of inclination on the Adomian velocity. Due to the Lorentz effect and central radial location, the results show that the magnetic field diminishes the velocities of blood. Meanwhile, progressive inclination angle enhanced the blood flow.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1065.pdf
Research ArticleInvestigating Thermal Conductivity of FerrofluidsSumeir Walia*2023-08-17 09:44:15Heat transfer is one of the most important aspects of large-scale industries and machines, linking importantly to the efficiency associated with different mechanisms while also emphasizing the importance of sustainable, low-cost methods of heat transfer. One such method is the use of ferrofluids. Through this paper, it is clearly explained that the conductivity of ferrofluids has vast applications across industries and using its magnetic and thermal properties, it can be a cost-effective solution as well. Previously researched works in this field ferrofluids are also acknowledged and furthered as per experimental data.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1064.pdf
Research ArticleStudies of dose distribution to Lung and Stomach and Estimation of Second Cancer Risk due to Outfield Dose in Radiotherapy with 60Co Teletherapy BeamMZ Hossain, MUH Musfika, N Arobi, T Siddiqua, HM Jamilc, AKM Moinul Haque Meaze, Md Shakilur Rahman*2023-08-08 14:09:05A critical component of the radiation regimen for treating cancer patients is the precise dose delivery to the treatment organ while minimizing the dose to the healthy tissue. This study aims to evaluate in-field organ dose and dose distribution outside the target organs to estimate the excess lifetime risk of second cancer. The study was carried out with a male Alderson Rando Phantom. 20 sets of thermoluminescence dosimeters (MTS-100) were used in this study. The in-field organs absorbed dose was measured by inserting TLDs at different geometrical depths of the left lung, right lung, and stomach, and for peripheral organs skin dose TLDs were placed at the surface of the corresponding organs. Target organs were irradiated at 100 cGy and 200 cGy by a 60Co teletherapy unit, and irradiated TLDs were read out by a RE-2000 TLD reader. For precise dose delivery to the cancerous organs by 60Co teletherapy, the depth dose correction factor for lung cancer treatment is 0.8667 ± 0.01, and for the stomach is 0.7856 ± 0.017. In the case of the treatment for the lung and stomach, the closest organs received significant doses compared to the other distant organs. Thus, the risk of second cancer due to the peripheral dose is obtained. The stomach is at the highest risk when the lung is the target and the liver is at the highest risk when the stomach is the targeted organ.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1063.pdf
Research ArticleMagnets, Gradients, and RF Coils of MR ScannersŽeljko Đ Vujović2023-07-25 16:27:32The topic of this paper is the parts of modern MR devices, which contain magnet coils. MR scanner magnets are made of four types of electromagnetic coils: 1) Main magnet, made of superconducting material. The main magnet of an MR (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scanner creates a strong and uniform magnetic field around the patient being scanned. This magnetic field is typically in the range of 0.5 to 3 Tesla and is used to align the magnetic moments of the hydrogen atoms in the patient's body. The superconductors, which create the main magnetic field, should be cooled with liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. The main magnets made of superconductors should use a cryostat, with cooling vessels with liquid helium and liquid nitrogen, thermal insulation, and other protective elements of the magnet system. 2) The gradient magnetic field is made of three types of coils: x-coils, y-coils, and z-coils. The X coil, made of resistive material, creates a variable magnetic field, horizontally, from left to right, across the scanning tube; 3) The Y coil creates a variable magnetic field, vertically, from bottom to top; 4) The Z coil creates a variable magnetic field, longitudinally, from head to toe, inside the scanning tube. RF coils are used to generate RF pulses to excite the hydrogen protons (spins) in the patient's body and detect the signals emitted by the protons when they return to their equilibrium state after the RF excitation is turned off. The resulting interaction between the magnetic field and the aligned hydrogen atoms produces a signal that is used to generate the images seen in an MRI scan. The main magnetic field is what allows MR imaging to produce detailed anatomical and functional information non-invasively. The structure of the MR scanner magnet is complex. The resonant frequency changes at each point of the field in a controlled manner. Inside the copper core are embedded the windings of the main magnet made of superconducting material in the form of microfibers. A non-linear gradient field is created by coils of conductive material. It adds to the main magnetic field. Thus the resulting magnetic field is obtained. The types of magnets that exist in the basic configurations of MR scanners are analyzed. Scanners in the form of a closed cylindrical cavity generate their magnetic fields by passing current through a solenoid, which is maintained at the temperature of a superconductor. Exclusively used superconductors are niobium-titanium (NbTi), niobium-tin (Nb3Sn), vanadium-gallium (V3Ga), and magnesium-diboride (MgB2). Only magnesium diboride is a high-temperature superconductor, with a critical temperature Tc = 390K. The three remaining superconductors are low temperatures. New high-temperature superconductors have been discovered, as well as superconductors at room temperature. Newly discovered superconducting materials are not used in MR scanners.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1062.pdf
Research ArticleA Study of Complete and Incomplete Reactions of 12C + 169Tm System at Energy Range ≈ 4.16 –7.5 MeV/NucleonGetahun Kebede*2023-06-26 15:57:20An attempt was made in this study to measure the excitation functions of 169Tm(12C, 4n)177Re, 169Tm(12C, 5n)176Re, 169Tm(12C, αn)176Ta, 169Tm(12C, α2n)175Ta, 169Tm(12C, α3n) 174Ta, 169Tm(12C, α4n)173Ta and 169Tm(12C, 2α2n)171Lu reaction channels populated in the interaction of 12C projectile with 169Tm target were considered in order to investigate the mechanisms of complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The theoretically predicted excitation functions using the PACE4 code were compared with the previously measured excitation functions. For non α emitting channels cross-section values predicted by PACE4 in general were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, for α-emitting channels, the measured cross-section values were found to be higher than the values predicted by PACE4. The observed disagreement may be credited to projectile break-up in the vicinity of n-n interaction.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1061.pdf
Literature ReviewPristine and Fullerene between Hasselmann and Van HasseltWidastra Hidajatullah-Maksoed*2023-06-20 16:53:57It was about K3C60 organic superconductors related to a region found in Belgie at least funding & cash case denoted in mathematics dealt with economical realms, instead of econophysics. We also dealt with fusion also discussed in pure mathematics of tensor & Connes fusion as well as µ-catalyzed fusion.Accompany the ‘the most economical covering of space by sphere’ [the so-called “thinnest covering”] and thus they mainly arrange in a superlattice, - due to the thick organic shell, the orientational ordering of nanocrystals within this type of superlattice is low, therefore this type of crystal is not a monocrystal.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1060.pdf
Short ReviewAlkylation reaction: An essay for Nobel PrizeWidastra Hidajatullah-Maksoed*2023-06-07 14:17:12It was pyrite from Congo which conducts electricity but cannot store it as the existing event of catalytic nanomotors. Herewith provided discussion and description from nanodiamond contained in meteorite to alkylation reaction any catalytic nanomotors proposed to enhance the built-in DNA-wave biocomputer.We found chondrite meteorites in primitive types of space rock.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1059.pdf
Short CommunicationSpin ½ model in statistical mechanics and relation to a truncation of the Riemann ξ function in the Riemann HypothesisDanilo Merlini, Luca Rusconi, Massimo Sala, Nicoletta Sala*2023-06-05 11:18:30In the search for a solution to the Riemann Hypothesis, we have studied an approach that connects the Riemann Problem with physical modeling that refers to statistical mechanics.Thus, we study the relation between a truncation of the Riemann ξ function in the variable z = 1-1/s, where s is the usual complex variable (s=Re(s)+i·Im(s) = ρ + i·t) and the partition function of a ferromagnetic spin 1/2 model on a circle C with long-range interaction, to give a concrete look at a strategy for a possible proof of the Riemann Hypothesis.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1058.pdf
Research ArticleProbing nuclear equation of state with the cdm3y version of B3y-fetal effective interactionOchala Isaiah*2023-05-24 14:36:57This paper is a study of the nuclear Equation of State (EOS) of cold nuclear matter with the B3Y-Fetal effective interaction in its CDM3Y density-dependent version within the framework of Hartree-Fock approximation. The well-known saturation properties of both symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are well-reproduced in this work. Using the CDM3Y-K approach, this study has evolved a new set of user interactions, some of which are CDB3Y1-, CDB3Y2-, CDB3Y3-, CDB3Y4-, CDB3Y5-, CDB3Y6-Fetal interactions with corresponding incompressibilities K0 = 188, 204, 217,228, 241 and 252 MeV respectively, in excellent agreement with those of the M3Y-Paris and M3Y-Reid effective interactions. For asymmetric nuclear matter, the new set of interactions has produced the symmetry energy Esym = 32.00 MeV with an associated slope parameter L = 55 MeV at a saturation density ρ = 0.17fm−3 and asymmetry parameter δ = 1.00 (pure neutron matter) in good agreement with the standard values obtained from coupled channel analysis of charge exchange reactions, statistical multifragmentation model and terrestrial Nuclear Physics experimental analyses. Furthermore, the new set of interactions has been found to have bright prospects in a nuclear reaction as the real folded potential computed with the CDB3Y6-Fetal interaction within the framework of double folding potential has been found to be good and similar to that of CDB3Y6-Paris whose optical potential has a repulsive direct component.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1057.pdf
Research ArticleRoom temperature organic superconductor compound prediction based on fractals in mesoscopic-scale regimeWidastra Hidajatullah-Maksoed*2023-05-17 14:47:38Based on paraffin-wax include, volcano-based antimony-bearing, phospholipid, antimony found in gold deposit and TIPSb/triisopropylantimony ever predicted as the room temperature organic superconductor compound. Many flourishing explanations have been declared, from variational method to inductive deduction, with all indicating the presence of C9H21O3Sb.PBr6.We consider that aplications in mesoscale regime, at least when using multiscale fractal of critical parameter that affects physical & chemical properties and to adopt “mesoscopic scale” ever stated as “superconductors” by Holmvall (2017). Then the mathematical induction of variational method of exploitation on integers & natural numbers herewith paraffin-wax etc can be resembled the ever built antimony containing compounds to keep the realm of predictions.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1056.pdf
Research ArticleThe universal impossibility of photonic quantum nonlocalityAndre Vatarescu*2023-04-24 16:59:27The theoretical concept of photonic quantum nonlocality cannot be implemented physically because of the quantum Rayleigh scattering of single photons. Physical scrutiny of landmark experiments (December 2015, M. Giustina, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401, and L. K. Shalm, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402) is undertaken. These articles reported that measured outcomes were fitted with quantum states possessing a dominant component of non-entangled photons, thereby contradicting their own claim of quantum nonlocality. With probabilities of photon detections lower than 0.1%, the alleged quantum nonlocality cannot be classified as a resource for developing quantum computing devices, despite recent publicity. Experimental evidence of a feasible process for quantum-strong correlations has been identified (M. Iannuzzi, et al., Phys. Lett. A, 384 (9), 126200, 2020) in terms of correlations between independent and multi-photon states evaluated as Stokes vectors on the Poincaré sphere. As single-photon sources are not needed, the design and implementation of quantum computing operations and other devices will be significantly streamlined.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1055.pdf
Research ArticleForensic seismology vis-à-vis an underwater explosion for the Roks Cheonan sinking in the Yellow Sea of the Korean PeninsulaSo Gu Kim2023-04-18 12:52:05Most underwater explosions show characteristics of a bubble pulse and reverberation effects. To specifically identify the cause of an underwater explosion, it is most important to find a bubble pulse and reverberation effects using spectral and cepstral analyses. For a very shallow underwater explosion, spectral analysis is preferable to cepstral analysis. Time-domain analyses show bubble pulses as well as positive polarities of the first P-wave arrivals on the vertical component, and frequency-domain spectral analyses also clearly reveal the bubble pulse and reverberation effects. This study includes comparative studies including a Russian underwater nuclear explosion and US Navy shock trials. The ROKS Cheonan sinking was a shallow underwater explosion that occurred near the surface showing a bubble jet characteristic resulting in splitting the ship into two pieces including a bubble pulse and reverberation effects. The findings of a bubble jet and a toroidal bubble deformation including a bubble pulse are highlighted for a shallow underwater explosion in this study. The ROKS Cheonan sinking took place off the Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea of the Korean Peninsula at a depth of about 8 m in the sea depth of 44 m on March 26, 2010. The explosive charge weight was estimated at 136 kg TNT which is equivalent to one of the abandoned land control mines (LCM) that were deployed near the Northern Limited Lines (NLL) in the Yellow Sea in the late 1970s.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1054.pdf
Research ArticleGyroscope oscillation depends on a rotor speed velocityRyspek Usubamatov2023-04-07 16:43:42In engineering, all moving rotating objects exhibit gyroscopic effects resulting from the action of an external torque on a rotating object. Gyroscopic effects are the action of a set of inertial moments and movements of an object around three axes of a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Moments of inertia are created by centrifugal and Coriolis forces, as well as the moment of change in angular momentum, which is expressed by their kinetic energy. The values of the moments of inertia directly depend on the speed of rotation of the object and its rotation around the axes. A short-term effect of an external load on a running gyroscope with displaced support can be manifested by its oscillations. The physics of gyroscope oscillations is not well explained in publications. This article describes the oscillations of a gyroscope by the action of the external torque which is its potential energy converting into kinetic energy of the inertial torques of the gyroscope. The conversion is carried out by the principle of mechanical energy conservation which is the same as for oscillations of a spring with a load.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1053.pdf
Review ArticleSpin supercurrent in ecologyLiudmila Borisovna Boldyreva2023-04-03 09:40:47Background: This work aims to show that the process of transfer of angular momentum ‑ spin supercurrent ‑ may provide the fulfillment of the fundamental law of ecology: “Everything is connected to everything else”.Results: The conducted investigations are based on the following properties of spin supercurrent: the equalization of the characteristics of interacting objects’ spins; dissipation-free; inertia-free (it is not accompanied by the emergence of kinetic mass); superluminal speed (there is no contradiction with Special Relativity, as Special Relativity postulates the speed limit only for an inertial process). The spin supercurrent emerges between virtual photons having a spin and being created by quantum objects of different types: living and non-living, electrically charged and neutral, magnetized and non-magnetized, having non-zero rest mass and having zero rest mass (such as photons). Conclusion: It is shown in this work that the properties of spin supercurrent may determine the following phenomena in ecology: the mimicry of animals and plants; the contactless (without living pathogenic microorganisms) spread of epidemics; the influence of the terrain relief on the population longevity; the use of water as information matrix; the stabilization of energy in the Earth’s core. Since the spin supercurrent possesses such properties as dissipative-free, superluminal speed, the non-electric and non-magnetic nature, it may perform interaction (quantum teleportation) of quantum objects between the Earth and Cosmic bodies. Thus, the extension of the biosphere’s border to Outer Space is possible.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1052.pdf
Research ArticleResearch into the fundamental building block of quantum theorem of the unified force fieldAbraham Joseph2023-03-28 09:49:22This is a work based on the extension of the work of Professor James Clerk Maxwell and Albert Einstein into a new framework of science built on provable mathematical theorem which serves as a basis for unifications of the fundamental forces which all together have become impossible to unify under the current framework of General relativity and Quantum Field theory.It is to be used as a piece for inspiring new innovations, discovering and exploring the terrains of the difficult pathways in physics where our modern physical theories have failed.This work is meant to be adapted and used by various physics professionals who are working on extending the frontiers of physics or providing solutions to problems that cannot be handled by current physics framework. In summary it is an inspirational tool that hopefully will help our professional in physics out there.It interpretations and applications is subject to the personal inspirations the reader who is a professional can derived from the work for his or her personal usage.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1051.pdf
Mini ReviewModeling of low calorific gas burning in a deficient oxygen environment and high-temperature oxidizerJan Stąsiek,Marcin Jewartowski,Jacek Baranski,Jan Wajs2023-03-15 14:11:38It is planned to carry out a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study on the high temperature of low calorific gas combustion with oxygen-deficient oxidizers. The experimental research will be performed using the experimental facility with a combustion chamber. The oxygen concentration in combustion oxidizers will be varied from 21% by volume (normal) air to 2%. The test combustion chamber will be fed with propane or methane as the reference fuel, then with low calorific fuels as test gases obtained by mixing various combustible components, e.g. H2, CH4, CO, and neutral gases, e.g. N2, CO2. Gaseous fuels prepared in this way will be burned in the atmosphere of a deficient oxidizer with a temperature changing from 800 °C to 1100 °C. Oxidizers will be heated up to a certain temperature using two methods: by flue gas heat exchanger and kanthal rod electric preheater. Different burner geometry will be used. The burner will be equipped with annular swirl vanes for co-axial or under different angles, fuel, and oxidizers flow to have a high swirl number achieved by flow aerodynamics and mixing. Experimental data will be verified with numerical simulations with the use of ANSYS CFD Fluent code.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1050.pdf
Research ArticleThe time and the growth in physicsMarcel Julmard Ongoumaka Yandza2023-01-19 10:40:07In this article, we made a research on the subject of Time and Growth. In the life, the Growth is seen as the increase of mass which operates during a certain period. In physics, it is the same. By the Growth, a physical body gets its density increased. The goal of this article is to calculate or predict the energy and force that a physical system can have at its total Growth. To study the Growth, we have defined some equations which help to evaluate the Growth internal force and energy. By the same way, we have also discovered that all physical systems in the Universe are connected by the same interaction. This interaction leads to the loss of density or mass. The Time is the consequence of its manifestation. For studying the effect of this interaction, we have calculated the density of the Universe. We found that the density of the Universe is equal to the density of a photon. In other words, the Universe is a huge photon. That means, like a photon, the Universe does not know the Time. It also means that the Universe is eternal. Its Expansion (not its growth) is due by the fact that, at the moment small systems inside to it grow, the Universe maintains its density constant like a photon. Do not confuse Growth and Expansion. The Growth is the increase of the density; and the Expansion is the increase of the volume without the change of density. The Universe does not know the Growth, it knows the Expansion. All these conclusions are detailed in the development of this article.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1049.pdf
Research ArticleFailure-oriented-accelerated-testing (FOAT) and its role in assuring electronics reliability: reviewE Suhir2023-01-06 11:26:16A highly focused and highly cost-effective failure-oriented-accelerated-testing (FOAT) suggested about a decade ago as an experimental basis of the novel probabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) concept is intended to be carried out at the design stage of a new electronic packaging technology and when high operational reliability (like the one required, e.g., for aerospace, military, or long-haul communication applications) is a must. On the other hand, burn-in-testing (BIT) that is routinely conducted at the manufacturing stage of almost every IC product is also of a FOAT type: it is aimed at eliminating the infant mortality portion (IMP) of the bathtub curve (BTC) by getting rid of the low reliability “freaks” prior to shipping the “healthy” products, i.e., those that survived BIT, to the customer(s). When FOAT is conducted, a physically meaningful constitutive equation, such as the multi-parametric Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, should be employed to predict, from the FOAT data, the probability of failure and the corresponding useful lifetime of the product in the field, and, from the BIT data, as has been recently demonstrated, - the adequate level and duration of the applied stressors, as well as the (low, of course) activation energies of the “freaks”. Both types of FOAT are addressed in this review using analytical (“mathematical”) predictive modeling. The general concepts are illustrated by numerical examples. It is concluded that predictive modeling should always be conducted prior to and during the actual testing and that analytical modeling should always complement computer simulations. Future work should be focused on the experimental verification of the obtained findings and recommendations.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1048.pdf
Short CommunicationPandemic as the second stage of the extinction of our civilizationYu P Chukova2022-10-04 14:53:13In the twentieth century, the works of W. Wien, M. Planck and A. Einstein. Lord Rayleigh, Sh. Bose, L. Landau, M. Weinstein, Yu. Chukova and P. Landsberg [1-5] created a new science – quantum thermodynamics, which formulated the law of the efficiency of conversion of electromagnetic radiation into other types of energy for isothermal processes in open thermodynamic systems. This efficiency is of the greatest interest since the whole living world is a huge factory of isothermal processes.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1047.pdf
Research ArticleOscillation of neutrino in a vacuum with mixing flavorBibek Koirala,Saddam Husain Dhobi2022-08-04 14:41:20We developed multiple equations to observe the two and three flavors of neutrino oscillation with the mixing angle based on L/E=0.1 to 0.9 in this study. In different settings, the nature of the neutrino oscillation probability was discovered to be varied in different equations. The observation indicates increasing likelihood in one equation and decreasing probability in the other equations in two flavor oscillation neutrinos. To characterize the probability of neutrino oscillation, we use four distinct angles: 50, 100, 150, and 200. The probability of neutrino oscillation was determined to be highest at an angle of 150 degrees. However, with increasing mixing angles, the likelihood of oscillation increases on the basis of created equation (25) and decreases on the basis of equations (26) and (27) in the three-flavor neutrino oscillation. From generated equations (25) and (26) the maximum neutrino oscillation of probability is discovered at an angle of 150, however, from equation (27), the maximum probability is observed at 50. The greatest neutrino oscillation is found to be 0.9999 and the minimum is zero in all of these two and three flavors of oscillation.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1046.pdf
Mini ReviewHarmonic oscillation picture of the free electron Zitterbewegung in vacuumFrédéric Schuller2022-05-03 16:55:22As shown e.g. in ref.[1] Zitterbewegung (trembling motion) of the free Dirac electron is generated if transitions between positive and negative energy states occur. Here we treat this effect in a single-mode configuration using a density matrix method. As compared with more elaborate conventional treatments, this method allows an easy estimate of the amplitude of the motion. The result is by predicted spreads of the free electron charge.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1045.pdf
Research ArticleA Study of excitation functions in the interaction of α + 59Co system at 4~9MeV/NucleonAbraham Barena Bekele2022-03-01 14:09:53In this work, α-induced 59Co reactions in the energy range from 11- 41MeV were used in order to study the role of pre-equilibrium emission. The experimentally measured excitation functions for residues populated via (α, n),(α, 2n),(α,3n),(α,2p),(α, 3n 2p) and (α, 4n 2p) channels in the interaction of + 59Co system available in the literature [13] were compared with theoretical predictions obtained using the statistical model code COMPLET. It was observed that at higher energy points the pure compound nucleus predictions, in general, failed to reproduce the measured data at projectile energies ~11-41MeV, this shows significant contributions from pre-equilibrium emission. The study signified both equilibrium and pre-equilibrium emissions were required to reproduce the presently measured excitation functions. An attempt was made to deduce the contribution coming from pre-equilibrium emission. It was found that the pre-equilibrium contribution increases with increasing projectile energy. Furthermore, the present result revealed a strong correlation between pre-equilibrium contribution and particle multiplicity.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1044.pdf
OpinionLaser spears for the Russian armyVictor V Apollonov2022-02-08 10:36:09The paper is devoted to the problem of high-energy solid-state laser arms, demonstrating the highest efficiency in the terms of weight and sizing. We can predict a very bright future for such laser systems as a significant means of defeating the enemy. The problem of scalability for such an approach based on fiber laser technology is the key question of our days for many companies of the world. At the same time, it is clear that a tactical LW based on solid-state technology with a weight factor of 5 kg / kW with the total weight of a laser complex significantly less than a ton can be created. But the level of output power around 500 kW is very close to the limit for the fiber technology...
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1043.pdf
Research ArticleA new theory on the shape of the universe and the origin of the timeMarcel Julmard Ongoumaka Yandza2022-01-25 11:56:48In this article, we have made a theoretical research, at the limit of the scientiﬁc reﬂection, to respond to the following query: what is the origin of the time? To ﬁnd the response to this question, we adopted an attractive method. First, we have considered the light physical characteristics (speed, energy...) as the invariants. On this basis, we characterized all other physical systems by referring to the light. By this scheme, we showed that the calculation of the absolute physical characteristics of any system comes compulsory by the light viewpoint. That method avoids the use of mathematical transformations like Lorentz transformation; which is used in relativity to make invariant the equations by the change of the system of reference. Second, we made other hypothesis to ﬁnd a law characterizing the interactions between matter and antimatter. Third, we used these interactions to quantify the time. The central query of this research led us to the shape of the universe and its volume. Finally, we found that the universe is a conical shape.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1042.pdf
Research ArticleOn Friedman equation, quadratic laws and the geometry of our universeS Kalimuthu2021-06-25 00:00:00Einstein’s special and general relativity revolutionized physics. The predictions of general relativity are Strong Lensing, Weak Lensing, Microlensing, Black Holes, Relativistic Jets, A Gravitational Vortex, Gravitational Waves, The Sun Delaying Radio Signals, Proof from Orbiting Earth, Expansion of the universe. The density of the universe determines the geometry and fate of the universe. According to Freedman’s equations of general relativity published in 1922 and 1924, the geometry of the universe may be closed, open and flat. It all depends upon the curvature of the universe also. Various results of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and ESA’s Planck spacecraft probes found that our universe is flat within a margin of 0.4% error. In this short work, by applying the laws of quadratic equations, we attempt to show that OUR UNIVERSE IS FLAT.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1041.pdf
Research ArticleWorking process of steam turbine and establishment of start-up modelYongjian Sun,Chao Dong2021-05-24 00:00:00In the research of steam turbine rotor, start-up optimization is a very key research problem. A series of start-up optimization research can greatly improve the start-up efficiency of steam turbine and the safety performance of the unit. The start-up optimization of steam turbine is inseparable from the analysis of the start-up process of steam turbine and the mathematical model of the startup process of steam turbine unit, because the optimization of steam turbine unit can be regarded as a function to find the optimal solution. This paper analyzes the start-up process of 300 MW steam turbine, analyzes the start-up process of steam turbine unit through the data used in the actual power plant, and gives the mathematical model of cold start-up of steam turbine according to the start-up process of steam turbine, so as to further study the start-up optimization of steam turbine. Finally, the optimization model is determined by several key parameters, which are three weight coefficients α1,α2,α3, the actual damage value Di and damage limit value Dlim, and the start-up time ti and total start-up time t0 of each stage.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1040.pdf
Research ArticleMagnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of wendelstein7-X reactor with resistive wall (RWMs)Ali Pazirandeh,Mehrnaz Sadat Shariati2021-05-22 00:00:00Plasma stability is the biggest challenge facing the nuclear fusion industry. One of the best methods of stability study is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, which has two linear and nonlinear states. Usually linear stability analysis is used to describe the MHD state, which is obtained by linearizing nonlinear equations. The reactor under study is the W7-X reactor, which is an optimal example of a stellaratoric system.
The question raised in this research is how to create suitable conditions for the formation of plasma and heat transfer produced by the melting reaction. Many efforts have been made in this direction, but still the record holder for plasma state maintenance belongs to the international ITER project and around 1000. However, IPP researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Germany (maker of the W7-X reactor) predicted that by 2020 they would produce a pulse of 30 minutes.
The numerical method is used to investigate the stability of the reactor. In this paper, boundary conditions were expressed in terms of resistance wall. With the help of the mathematical Matlab software, magnetic field values were obtained from experimental reports extracted from the Max Planck Institute for various values of β. From the values obtained, it was concluded that the appropriate field value is β = 5 according to the ideal MagnetoHydroDynamic state and the interval defined by the Max Planck Institute.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1039.pdf
Short CommunicationA Time: Philosophy of ScienceBerov G Lyubomir2021-04-22 00:00:00Dear reader, isn’t it time to turn things around and allow TIME to take its rightful place? In a nutshell, I believe Time should be considered as the primary energy that has created the whole material world and governs the continuous changes in it. In my article “An Intelligent Cosmos: Philosophy of Science”, I discuss that this primary creative energy is, more generally, the Dark Energy in our Universe. I believe that Dark Energy probably has a variety of specific manifestations, and I assume that one of those manifestations is Time.
This article is a continuation of my article “An Intelligent Cosmos: Philosophy of Science”
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1038.pdf
Review ArticleQuantum analysis of sub harmonic generation with two-mode coherent lightAlemayehu Getahun,Habtamu Dagnew2021-04-09 00:00:00In this work the statistical and squeezing properties of light-driven by sub-harmonic generation with two-mode coherent light are studied. With interaction Hamiltonian of both two-mode coherent and sub harmonic generation, we have driven master equation of system under consideration. From the master equation, the solution of the C-number Langevin equation is derived. It helps us to solve quadrature variance, quadrature squeezing, mean, and variance of photon number for light produced by sub-harmonic generation with the two-mode coherent light state. And the result shows that; the squeezing occurs in plus quadrature with the maximum squeezing of 87%. The photon statistics of the system under consideration is subpoissonian in which both mean & variance are increasing as kappa increase.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1037.pdf
Review ArticleTunable induced transparency and Fano-resonance in double cavity optomechanical systemAnjan Samanta,Kousik Mukherjee,Paresh Chandra Jana2021-04-07 00:00:00We analyze optomechanically induced Transparency and asymmetric Fano-line shape Profile in a two-mode cavity system, coupling at weak and strong coupling regimes. The model system consists of one mechanical mode and two optical modes. The transmission shows nonreciprocal behavior. Both the forward transmission and backward reflection for the system are analyzed for both optic-optic and mechanical-optic cavities by considering various system parameters. The output spectra lead to sharp asymmetric Fano-resonance and tunable transparency. Double line-shape profile is observed in the output Spectrum. Our proposal provides a new platform for application in quantum telecommunications and a photonic device like optical Switches.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1036.pdf
Research ArticleInfluence of high frequency rotating magnetic field on the effect of heating magnetic fluidAndrzej Skumiel2021-04-05 01:00:00The article describes the necessary conditions for the phenomenon of thermal energy release in a magnetic fluid placed in a high-frequency rotating magnetic field. The minimum amplitude of the magnetic field was calculated and the thermal power released (by the rotating spherical nanoparticles in the viscous medium) was estimated. The estimations were based on the assumption that the magnetic relaxation times (τN and τB) and the magnetic field rotation period (τrot) meet the condition: τN>>τrot>>τB. The principle of operation and construction of the device generating a high-frequency rotating magnetic field is described. Preliminary experimental studies were carried out using a magnetic fluid with magnetite nanoparticles that indicated magnetic relaxation as the cause of the released heat. The value of the absorption rate in the experiment and its dependence on the strength of the magnetic field were determined.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1035.pdf
Research ArticleRadionuclide contents in yam samples and health risks assessment in Oguta oil producing locality Imo State NigeriaBenedict Chukwudi Eke,Nnamdi Norbert Jibiri2021-04-05 00:00:00Oguta LGA is surrounded by 44 oil wells located around different communities. Preliminary investigations indicated that crude wastes were not properly managed and oil spillage occurred regularly in the LGA. Therefore, assessment of both radionuclide contents in yam matrix and health risks in Oguta was carried out to determine possible radiological health risks associated with improper management of crude wastes, and also evaluate haematological health profile in the LGA for future reference and research. A well calibrated NaI (Tl) detector was deployed for the radiological investigation, and about 5 ml of blood samples were collected from 190 participants each from Oguta and the control LGAs for haematological assessment. Mean activity concentrations due to 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in yam samples from Oguta LGA were 189.99 ± 59.14 Bqkg-1, 23.75 ± 5.69 Bqkg-1 and 30.99 ± 9.51 Bqkg-1, respectively while mean activity concentrations due to natural radionuclides in yam samples from control LGA were 110.40 ± 78.53 Bqkg-1, 10.12 ± 3.34 Bqkg-1 and 18.39 ± 8.74 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. Committed effective dose equivalent values in Oguta and the control LGAs were 704.95 ± 183.30 μSvy-1 and 403.65 ± 172.19 μSvy-1, respectively which are less than world average value of 1.1 mSvy-1. Crucially, one-way ANOVA at α0.05 has indicated that effects of radiological parameters due to natural radionuclides in yam from Oguta are significantly different from effects of radiological parameters due to natural radionuclides in yam from the control LGA. However, the percentage contributions of natural radiation exposures to incidence of cancer in Oguta and the control LGAs are just 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively, and haematological investigations have shown that overall health of the communities in the study LGAs has not been compromised due to environmental and human factors. Hence, natural radioactivity may have been elevated in Oguta but the concentration levels are not yet alarming. Radiological health risks could result from consistent exposure to those natural radionuclides in the long term.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1034.pdf
Research ArticleExperimental research on the mechanism of chemical energy conversion to light energy under thermal inductionJiping Liu,Zhuqing Fang,Yinjie Wang,Jia Han2021-03-02 00:00:00Since the discovery of glare illuminators, considerable efforts have been devoted to achieving a breakthrough of high light intensity on the order of magnitude. In this paper, we prepared strong flash blinding agents for the first time by using aluminum powder, oxidant, and adhesive as the main materials, and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Al2Q3), triazoindolizine, or nano zinc oxide, etc. as electronic output brightener after mixing and granulation according to the developed formulation. It was discovered that the luminescence intensity was related to the thermal effect of the substance while the brightener only served as an auxiliary brightening effect to achieve energy non-destructive conversion. With the same formula, the luminescence intensities of glaze agents with ADN and potassium perchlorate as oxidants were slightly higher than that of ammonium perchlorate oxidant; the brightening effect of nano-zinc oxide was slightly higher than those of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Al2Q3) and triazoindolizine. The luminescence intensity of the substance with a high thermal effect value was high, but the luminescence time was slightly short. Under identical conditions, the luminescence effect of nano-aluminum powder was obviously better than that of micro-aluminum powder with the highest luminescence intensity of 3.9 × 1010 ~ 1.9 × 1011 cd and the luminescence time of 39 - 48 ms. The effects of shell material and structure and the effect of heat-induced mode on the luminescence intensity were also investigated. The luminescence intensity of the glare agent with a high shell strength was high, but the luminescence time was slightly short. Moreover, the energy level of the brightener is excited under the induction of high temperatures, which leads to a blue shift to promote the chemical reaction of the material in a favorable direction. Finally, the optical radiation of the thermally induced high-temperature combustion system was analyzed from the aspects of thermal effect, combustion temperature, and chemiluminescence effect. A way to improve the optical radiation intensity of a high-temperature combustion system was proposed.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1033.pdf
Mini ReviewMetal-carbon mesocomposites application possibilities as the medicine magnetic transport within an organismVI Kodolov,VV Kodolova-Chukhontseva,IN Shabanova,NS Terebova2020-12-11 00:00:00The paper is dedicated to the consideration of the metal-carbon mesocomposites application possibilities for the medicine magnetic transport. This trend is determined by correspondent peculiarities of content and structure of mesoscopic composites. The main peculiarities of these nanosized particles are the following: a) the presence of unpaired electrons on the carbon shell; b) the structure of carbon shell from poly acetylene and carbine fragments; c) the atomic magnetic moment of inner metal is equaled to more than 1–3 μB. The creation of reactive mesoscopic materials with regulated magnetic characteristics which can find application as medicine magnetic transport within an organism is very topical. The present investigation has fundamental character. It’s based on the ideas concerning to the change of metal-carbon mesocomposites reactivity. The use is possible as metal-carbon mesocomposites both and they are modified analogously.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1032.pdf
Research ArticleA study of 12c +12c nuclear reaction using a new M3Y-type effective interactionIsaiah Ochala, Daniel Terver,Joseph O Fiase2020-08-20 00:00:00This paper is a study of nuclear reactions involving 12c + 12c nuclei carried out with a heavy-ion nucleus-nucleus optical potential derived from a new M3Y-type effective interaction, called B3Y-Fetal, within the framework of optical model at the incident energies of 112, 126.7, 240, 300, 1016 MeV. Folding analyses of the differential cross sections associated with the elastic scattering of the nuclear system, determined at these incident energies with four B3Y-Fetal-based folded potentials constructed from double folding model, have shown the DDB3Y1- and BDB3Y1-Fetal potentials to be the best in excellent agreement with previous work done with the M3Y-Reid. The agreement of the B3Y-Fetal with the famous M3Y-Reid effective interaction, which is also used for folding analysis in this work, is further buttressed and well-established by the findings of this study Herein, the values of the renormalization factor, NR ranging from 1.1117 to 0.8121, obtained with the B3Y-Fetal have been found to be slightly higher, with lower reaction cross sections, aR = 1418 - 1047 millibarns, than NR = 0.9971 - 0.8108 obtained with the M3Y-Reid effective interaction whose accompanying reaction cross sections, being higher, range from 1431 to 1050 millibarns. This depicts the B3Y-Fetal as having a better performance. Additionally, results of folding analyses have shown the best-fit folded potentials, DDB3Y1- and BDB3Y1-Fetal potentials to be in agreement at all incident energies, implying that the cold nuclear matter has an underlying soft equation of state.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1031.pdf
Research ArticleHigh energy lasers and new applicationsVictor V Apollonov2020-08-14 00:00:00In the beginning of 1973 in the USSR the study of possibility of LJE designing was conducted. The reflector, located in the tail of the rocket prototype, concentrated the obtained radiation in air and ensured micro-burst that the reactive thrust was created. The successful results of different models of the reflectors tests, which were at the same time the laser light receivers, had been obtained. One should note that all experiments pointed out above were conducted with the use of electric discharge CO2- lasers with power up to 10 kW, while for the injection into orbit of different highly and technologically effective equipment (global network connections, Internet, photo-monitoring of Earth surface, debris cleaning) the radiated power substantially higher is required. Thus, for example, for SC launching with the weight 1000 kg the laser with power not less than 15 MW is necessary [1,2].
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1030.pdf
OpinionEntropy via ArtAbraham Tamir2020-08-13 00:00:00From the energy involved in a physical or chemical process, part of it cannot be utilised as work. Entropy S is the thermodynamic quantity that is the measure of this energy where the concept of entropy was first introduced by Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888) in 1865. Entropy is also a basic and general conception that deals with “order” (low entropy) and “disorder” (high entropy) of all systems in the universe from human body and up to the star systems. With the development of science entropy deviates from treatment of subjects related to heat and work and currently it is used also to analyse knowledge as well as in economics.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1029.pdf
Research ArticleNatural ferromagnetic resonance in cast microwires and its application to the safety control of infrastructuresSerghei Alexei Baranov,E Adar,AM Yosher2020-07-31 00:00:00The natural ferromagnetic resonance (NFMR) in cast glass-coated amorphous magnetic microwires has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The NFMR reveals large residual stresses appearing in the microwire core in the course of casting. These stresses, together with the magnetostriction, deteRmine the magnetoelastic anisotropy. Beside the residual internal stresses, the NFMR frequency is influenced by external stresses applied to the microwire or to the composite containing the latter (the so-called stress effect).
The dependence of the NFMR frequency on the deformation of the microwires is proposed to be used in the distant diagnostics of dangerous deformations of critical infrastructure objects such as bridges, dams, wind turbine towers, skyscrapers, stack-furnaces, embankments, etc. To this end, fragments of magnetic microwires will be embedded in the bulk of concrete structures or fixed on their surface during construction or after it by means of coating with a special concrete-adhesive plaster. Further, these structures are periodically irradiated with microwaves from a radar at frequencies close to the original NFMR, and the presence of latent dangerous deformations of the concrete structure is judged by the NFMR frequency shift.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1028.pdf
Research ArticleGround-state bands of doubly even 166Hf NucleusI Hossain,Hewa Y Abdullah2020-07-15 00:00:00This study was carried out to investigate the rotational structure of even-even 166Hf isotopes using the phenomenological fitting, Sood’s semi-empirical formula. The rotational energies from the calculated values were compared to the experimental spectrum. The result shows that in 166Hf, calculated energies fit the experimental values to a remarkable degree of accuracy.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1027.pdf
Research ArticleNon-force electromagnetic fields in nature and experiments on earth: Part 2VV Aksenov2020-07-13 17:16:47The manifestation of non-force electromagnetic fields in nature and in experiments on Earth is interesting and important in the part that would confirm the numerous physical models that have been calculated and presented in the scientific literature [5,6,15,17].
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1026.pdf
Research ArticleMeasurement of background ionizing radiation in the federal university of technology owerri, Nigeria using calibrated digital geiger counterEke BC,Emelue HU2020-05-25 00:00:00The measurement of the natural ionizing radiation in the Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria was carried out using a well calibrated Digital Geiger Muller counter models GCA – 04w. Measurements were taken randomly in thirty (30) diff erent locations outside the building and thirty (30) locations inside diff erent buildings in the University. Results obtained for outdoor Dose rate ranges from 0.07 μSv/hr to 0.23 μSv/hr with a mean value of 0.144 μSv/hr. While the result for the indoor dose rate ranges from 0.08 μSv/hr to 0.21 μSv/hr with a mean of 0.14 μSv/hr. The highest value recorded for the outdoor radiation is from the university front gate which is .023μSv/hr. While the highest value recorded inside the buildings is from the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT) which is 0.21 μSv/hr. All these values are lower than the world safely limits of 0.247 μSv/hr. This shows that the risk of ionizing radiation on the staff and students of the Federal University of Technology is minimal.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1025.pdf
Short CommunicationDetection limit of a lutetium based non-paralizable PET-like detectorEmmanuel Busato,Édouard Roux2020-04-16 00:00:00The effect of the intrinsic lutetium radioactivity on the detection performances of a LYSO based in-beam PET-like prototype used for quality control of hadrontherapy treatments is studied. This radioactivity leads to a background that degrades the measurement of the β+ signal. In particular, it prevents the measurement of faint signals originating from low activity β+ sources. This paper presents a method to estimate the minimum β+ activity that can be measured for any acquisition time taking into account the non-extensible dead time of the detector. This method is illustrated with experimental data collected with the in-beam PET-like prototype. The results presented in this paper are therefore specific to this detector. The method can however be applied in other contexts, either to other lutetium based PET detectors or even to non-PET detectors affected by lutetium radioactivity. The dead time correction formalism can also be used generally to scale signal and background yields in any non-paralizable detector, even those in which the background is not due to the presence of intrinsic radioactivity.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1024.pdf
Research ArticleEvaluation of Uranium in Organs of Residents from an Uranium-Rich Region using Teeth as BioindicatorsJoão DT Arruda-Neto,Fermin Garcia,Henriette Righi2020-03-26 00:00:00The Uranium extraction and processing plant of INB (Brazilian Nuclear Industries) is in Caetité, a city located in a region hosting the largest Uranium reserve of the country. The degree of Uranium contamination in the Caetité population was investigated before using teeth as bioindicator, where a quite high Uranium concentration was measured in this region, about 160 times higher than the world-wide average. Radiobiological risks are here evaluated from Uranium burdens in organs as skeleton, kidneys, liver, tissues and blood, which were estimated from transfer coefficients and effective internal doses. This was accomplished by means of calculations with the use of the STATFLUX/ICRP approach, plus a set of Uranium transfer rate parameters as function of individual’s age assuming an uninterrupted exposure over a period of 60 years. It was found that U ingestion rates by residents of Caetité are three orders of magnitude higher than worldwide average, indicating that food and water would exhibit high levels of contamination. Calculated effective internal doses range from a minimum of one to a maximum of three orders of magnitude higher than background doses, for blood and bones respectively. The likelihood that this circumstance could lead to serious health problems as e.g. neoplasia is addressed. The methodology presented in this work offers subsidies for further studies on environmental pollution by radionuclides.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1023.pdf
Research ArticleA quantum mechanical model for hole transport through DNA: predicting conditions for oscillatory/non-oscillatory behaviorArshad Khan,M Rezwan Khan,ATM Golam Sarwar2020-03-09 01:00:00A quantum mechanical model that considers tunneling and inelastic scattering has been applied to explain the hole transfer reaction from a G (Guanine) base to a GGG base cluster through a barrier of Adenine bases, (A)n (n = 1-16). For n = 1, the ratio of tunneling to inelastic scattering is about 6, which is sharply decreased to around 0.23 and 5.23 × 10-8 for n = 4 and 16 respectively, suggesting dominance of inelastic scattering for n ≥ 4. As in experiment, the calculated product yield ratios (PGGG) exhibit a strong distance dependence for n < 4, and a weak distance dependence for n ≥ 4. We also predict conditions under which oscillatory or non-oscillatory charge transfer (CT) yield are expected.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1022.pdf
Research ArticleNon-force electromagnetic fieldsVV Aksenov2020-03-09 00:00:00The non-force magnetic fields were first predicted by Chandrasekhar in 1956 in his well-known published work [1]. Since then there have appeared a large number of theoretical studies [5,6,15,17] with the research into various aspects of physical manifestations of non-force magnetic fields. However by now their existence in the technical physics and in laboratory experiments has not been experimentally confirmed [30]. Nevertheless the indistinct presence on the Earth of such fields was, in a sense, discovered in the natural electromagnetic field much earlier.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1021.pdf
Short CommunicationRaw materials criticalities in material selection & designPaolo Ferro2020-02-19 00:00:00Circular Economy, Sustainability, Design for Environment are some of the keywords that identify new formidable challenges to be faced in the next years. Raw materials have a dominant role in reaching that goal. Green energy, electric vehicles, communication, etc. depends on raw materials labeled as critical because of their economic importance coupled with high supply risk. For this reason, mitigating actions need to be used in materials selection and design such as material substitution, improved materials efficiency and recycling. In this technical communication, a method to implement raw materials criticality issues in materials selection is described according to the recent literature. The strategy is based on Ashby’s approach and the definition of the alloy criticality index quantifying the criticality per unit of mass of the material.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1020.pdf
Review ArticleThe Neppe-Close triadic dimensional vortical paradigm: An invited summaryVernon M Neppe,Edward R Close2020-01-13 00:00:00Physicists are generally trained in the Standard Model of Physics (SMP). This implies that they perceive and account for only 3 dimensions of space in a moment in time (3S-1t) (a 4-dimensional [4D] model). However, applying the SMP, more than fifty significant conundrums have arisen that are unexplained or incomplete. Explaining these within the SMP 4D fabric led to hypothesizing a ‘fifth force’, most recently the hypothetical ‘X17 particle’. We propose this hypothetical X17 may better be explained by a 9-dimensional model (9D) with gimmel. Our model, the Neppe-Close Triadic Dimensional Vortical Paradigm (TDVP) has amplified the ‘physics’ from 4 dimensions to 9D, specifically first postulating and then further demonstrating mathematically—starting with derivations of the Cabibbo angle—that 9 dimensions must exist. Moreover, this data is empirically demonstrated because the neutron, proton and electron mass-energy-gimmel equivalence in the Triadic Rotational Units of Equivalence (TRUE) as part of the TDVP model, exactly corresponds with the normalized data for the mass-energy equivalence volumetric data for these particles in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This data shows definitively that we exist in a 9-dimensional finite, quantized, volumetric, spinning reality. This is, furthermore, embedded in an infinite continuity (9D+). Mathematically, applying this 9D+ model definitively requires an extra third component that is massless and energyless (‘gimmel’). Without gimmel, no particle in the universe would be stable. TDVP unifies nature because the same laws apply across the quantum, macro-world and cosmological reality. Our 4D experience is simply the physical component of 9D+ existence.
Summary Amplification: At all levels, there is the consistent application of a 9-Dimensional quantized finite reality embedded within an infinite continuity. The application of gimmel specifically requires applying the 9-dimensional model and is based on necessary mathematical calculations not only at the quantal level (where the fifty plus unsolved, unexplained or contradictory conundrums can be explained somewhat, and there is no longer ‘quantum weirdness’), but at the macroscale level with more gimmel in the life elements (which, additionally, are consistently all cubic multiples of 108 cubed), as well as cosmologically, where the correlations with proportionate Dark Matter and Dark Energy are overwhelming. Moreover, these 9-dimensional plus factors together with Triadic Rotational Units of Equivalence (TRUE) and gimmel, allow numerous solutions that couldn’t otherwise be solved. For example, importantly, applying the simple mathematics of TRUE, we can demonstrate why gluons, while adequate in 4D, are impossible applying 9D. These solutions are simpler because we have markedly adapted George Spencer-Brown’s ‘Laws of Form’ to applying a new method of mathematical calculation, Edward Close’s ‘Calculus of Distinctions’ (COD) which recognizes quantal limits and that the nature of finite reality is quantized and volumetric. The COD includes distinguishing between content, extent, and impact. We emphasize the pioneering works of Wolfgang Pauli with his multidimensional model and his ‘Pauli Exclusion Principle’, Alfred Whitehead with ‘Process Philosophy’ and his ‘Principia Mathematica’ (with Bertrand Russell), Georg Cantor with Set Theory, and Roger Penrose with spinors and twistors. TDVP is a prime example of our broad new specialty of ‘Dimensional Biopsychophysics’ (DBP). DBP extends physics, consciousness, and the biopsychosocial to extra dimensions and applies mathematics empirically. Like Max Tegmark, we recognize the key role of mathematics as fundamental in nature, not just for application in calculation and operations.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1018.pdf
Research ArticleSynthesis of Carbon Nano Fiber from Organic Waste and Activation of its Surface AreaHimanshu Narayan,Brijesh Gaud,Amrita Singh,Sandesh Jaybhaye2019-12-31 00:00:00Carbon Nano fibers (CNFs) have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their widespread range of technological applications attributed to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as, small size, high strength, high adsorption linked with their large specific surface area, high temperature tolerance and corrosion resistance. CNFs have been used in energy conversion and storage, reinforcement of composites and self-sensing devices. The complete removal of entrapped metallic impurities and amorphous carbon incorporated with CNFs has been a long-standing issue. We have developed a new approach for preparing graphitic CNFs and its activation of surface area by purification. This approach entails Thermal Decomposition (TD) based synthesis of CNFs from organic solid waste, such as, stems of rice plants. CNFs are synthesized from organic waste precursor (Rice Stems) at 900 oC under inert atmosphere. The active surface area was measured using a Surface Area Analyzer. Morphology of CNFs was studied with using SEM and XRD. The SEM image shows that the synthesized CNFs have diameter ranging within 45-60 nm.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1017.pdf
Research ArticleBio-moleculear thermal oscillator and constant heat current sourceR Panahinia,S Behnia2019-12-04 00:00:00The demand for materials and devices that are capable of controlling heat flux has attracted many interests due to desire to attain new sources of energy and on-chip cooling. Excellent properties of DNA make it as an interesting nanomaterial in future technologies. In this paper, we aim to investigate the thermal flow through two sequence combinations of DNA, e.g, (AT)4 (CG)4 (AT)4 (CG)4 and (CG)8 (AT)8. Two interesting phenomena have been observed respectively. In the first configuration, an oscillatory thermal flux is observed. In this way, an oscillating heat flux from a stationary spatial thermal gradient is provided by varying the gate temperature. In the second configuration, the system behaves as a constant heat current source. The physical mechanism behind each phenomenon is identified. In the first case, it was shown that the transition between thermal positive conductance and negative differential conductance implies oscillatory heat current. In the latter, the discordance between the phonon bands of the two coupled sequences results in constant thermal flow despite of increasing in temperature gradient.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1016.pdf
Research ArticleBiodegradation of gold and platinum implants in rats studied by electron microscopyLudwig Jonas,Hendrik Kosslick,Hermann Sauer,Tino Just,Ursula Vick,Gerhard Fulda2019-11-27 00:00:00Graphical abstract
Biodegradation of implanted gold in human tissue. TEM images reveal markedly biodegradation of implanted gold and re-crystallization of dissolved gold as nanoparticle of different size, shape and crystallinity. Highly crystalline icosahedral Au nanoparticle and the corresponding power spectrum are shown on top.
Background: Despite the importance of biodegradation for the durability of metal prosthesis and the widely use of gold implants, there exist a lack of knowledge regarding the stability of pure gold in tissue.
Methods: We studied biodegradation of grids of pure gold, nickel, and copper as well as middle ear prosthesis of gold, platinum or titanium. Metals were implanted into rat skin and humans. Dissolution and re-crystallization process of the metals was analysed using SEM, TEM, power spectra as well as elemental analysis by EDX and EELS/ESI.
Results: Biodegradation of gold was detected, presumably by solving and re-precipitation of gold around implants. Gold cluster, nanoparticles, and mesostructures were detected, formed by dissolution and re-crystallization process. This process results into a migration of gold into the farer off tissue. Cellular filaments as biomolecular templates facilitate the formation of mesostructures. Loss of function of middle ear prosthesis by biodegradation is caused by chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Indeed, similar processes were detected with platinum, but in a very lower level.
Conclusion: Noble metal implants undergo biodegradation in oxidative environment in tissue. The dissolution – recrystallization process can be explained by enzyme catalysed redox processes comprising reactive oxygen species and reduction agents as ascorbic acid present in cells and body tissue. Enymes like myeloperoxidase inside lysosomes of inflammatory cells produce hypochloride ions and H2O2 which can dissolve the gold.
General significance: The crucial role of the specific chemical environments of gold implants in tissue for their chemical stability and durability of function has been demonstrated. Due to widely use and importance of gold implants, this finding is of general interes.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1014.pdf
Short CommunicationModeling of A.I based Inhalation for Advanced Life Support System DevelopmentMd. Sadique Shaikh,Tanvir Begum2019-11-27 00:00:00Present piece of idea exhibits to divert attention towards automated high precision Life Support System (LSS) instead of manual one using medical intelligence devices while treating and diagnosis to the patient, where Ventilator, inhaler and respiratory control is most important factor during operation, surgeries and in other likewise medical emergency situations to maintain proper saturation in patient lungs to sustain their lives. This work gives idea, how we can design A.I based Inhaler System for the same.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1015.pdf
OpinionBiological membranes: The laboratory of fundamental physicsSamo Kralj,Mitja Kralj2019-11-01 00:00:00Biological membranes present an essential constituent of living cells. Their main role is to separate the interior of a cell from its surrounding, however allowing the selective transfer of specific material through it. Configuration changes of membranes are often correlated with important biological processes [1-7].
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1013.pdf
Research ArticleNanotechnology to improve the biofouling and corrosion performance of marine paints: from lab experiments to real tests in seaGeorge Kordas2019-07-12 00:00:00Nanocontainers of the type CuO, ZnO and CeMo were developed in the present work and incorporated into commercial paints. The nanocontainers were filled with bromosphaerol (CuO and ZnO), SeaNineTM 211 (CuO and ZnO), and 8Hydroxyquinoline (CeMo). The new resulting paints were tested in the lab and in the sea via painting a fraction of two ships. The outcome of this work is encouraging demonstrating that the new nanotechnology-based paints yield to superior commercial paints that may present a major milestone in the new generation of marine paints
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1012.pdf
OpinionMoving space-matter as the basis of the intelligence in the Physical WorldBoris S Dizhechko2019-03-28 00:00:00The concept of space-matter motion in the new Cartesian physics, based on the identity of space and matter, creates the basis for the study of consciousness as the action of the brain in space inside and outside itself and offers a way of materialistic explanation of life on Earth. She claims that consciousness in living matter arises when the brain begins to create the surrounding space the image of themselves and the world. And since space according to Descartes is identical to matter, the images created by the brain of itself and the external world in the surrounding space have a material basis and therefore the displayed organs interact with each other and the external world.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/ijpra-aid1007.pdf
Review ArticleGravitation - Flat Power FieldSA Orlov2018-10-30 00:00:00A new principle of origin and the nature of the action of gravity forces are proposed. Forces of universal attraction have plane-symmetrical directions. On this basis, it becomes possible to reconsider certain regularities in natural science. The new principle of gravitation will allow to explain physical paradoxes, to improve methods of scientific research and some technological processes.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/jpra-aid1005.pdf
Review ArticleFinite-time thermodynamics: Realizability domains of thermodynamic systems and P. Salamon’s problem of efficiency corresponding to maximum power output of the systemTsirlin AM,Sukin IA2018-10-16 00:00:00The paper analyses performance boundaries of systems converting the heat energy into the mechanical or separation work. Authors approach this problem from the view-point of the finite-time thermodynamics. Using thermodynamic balance equations, authors provide the algorithm for calculation of realizability domain for such systems. The paper shows that the performance of these systems is the upper bounded function of the heat flux, assuming that heat and mass transfer coefficients are given. Authors present sufficient conditions under which the efficiency (specific heat flux per unit of the useful flux) of the system does not depend on kinetic coefficients when operating in the maximum performance mode. The paper shows how to use these conditions to optimally choose the separation order for multicomponent distillation.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/jpra-aid1004.pdf
Research ArticleSounding procedure for characterization of big fusion reactor chambers by means of a compact neutron source with a nanosecond pulse durationVA Gribkov,B Bienkowska,S Jednorog,M Paduch,Tomaszewski2018-09-20 00:00:00In the paper a methodology that is elaborated for characterization of big-sized chambers of modern and future nuclear fusion reactors is described. It gives an opportunity to define distortions introduced by surroundings, systems and elements of the chamber into the neutron field generated during the reactors’ operation. The procedure is based on two types of experimental techniques supported by MCNP numerical modelling. These two classes are: 1) the neutron activation methods for measuring changes in anisotropy of the “absolute” neutron yields, and 2) the time-of-flight process for determination of neutron spectra deformations. MCNP calculations afterwards give an opportunity to fix just those elements of the surroundings that introduce the main impact in the perturbed neutron field characteristics.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/jpra-aid1003.pdf
Review ArticleMagnetohydrodynamic CNTs Casson Nanofluid and Radiative heat transfer in a Rotating ChannelsZahir Shah,Abdullah Dawar,Saeed Islam,Muhammad Idress,Waris Khan2018-08-17 01:00:00The main purpose of this investigation is to inspect the innovative conception of the magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) nanoparticles of single wall carbon nanotubes base on the fluids (water, engine oil, and ethylene, glycol and kerosene oil) between two rotating parallel plates. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) parade sole assets due to their rare structure. Such structure has significant optical and electronics features, wonderful strength and elasticity, and high thermal and chemical permanence. The heat exchange phenomena is deliberated subject to thermal radiation. Kerosene oil is taken as based nano fluids because of its unique attention due to their advanced thermal conductivities, exclusive features, and applications. The fluid flow is presumed in steady state. With the help of suitable resemblance variables, the fundamental leading equations have been converted to a set of differential equations. To obtain the solution of the modeled problem, the homotopic approach has been used. The influence of imbedded physical variables upon the velocities and temperature profiles are defined and deliberated through graphs. Moreover, for the several values of relevant variables, the skin fraction coefficient and local Nusselt number are tabulated. Plots have been presented in order to examine how the velocities and temperature profile get affected by various flow parameters.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/jpra-aid1002.pdf
Review ArticleHigh energy HF (DF) lasersVictor V Apollonov2018-08-17 00:00:00Non-chain HF (DF) lasers are the most suitable and ecologically safe source of powerful and energetic coherent radiation in the 2.6-3.1 cm (HF laser) and 3.5-4.1 cm (DF laser) spectral regions. Among the different methods of HF (DF) pulse and pulse-periodic laser creation suggested by our team under the guidance of Academician A.M. Prokhorov was self-sustained volume discharge (SSVD). It is well known that a SSVD can be established in a gas by creating a primary electron density that exceeds a certain minimum value nmin throughout the dis­charge gap.
https://www.physicsresjournal.com/articles/jpra-aid1001.pdf