Research Article

Radionuclide contents in yam samples and health risks assessment in Oguta oil producing locality Imo State Nigeria

Benedict Chukwudi Eke* and Nnamdi Norbert Jibiri

Published: 05 April, 2021 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 006-014

Oguta LGA is surrounded by 44 oil wells located around different communities. Preliminary investigations indicated that crude wastes were not properly managed and oil spillage occurred regularly in the LGA. Therefore, assessment of both radionuclide contents in yam matrix and health risks in Oguta was carried out to determine possible radiological health risks associated with improper management of crude wastes, and also evaluate haematological health profile in the LGA for future reference and research. A well calibrated NaI (Tl) detector was deployed for the radiological investigation, and about 5 ml of blood samples were collected from 190 participants each from Oguta and the control LGAs for haematological assessment. Mean activity concentrations due to 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in yam samples from Oguta LGA were 189.99 ± 59.14 Bqkg-1, 23.75 ± 5.69 Bqkg-1 and 30.99 ± 9.51 Bqkg-1, respectively while mean activity concentrations due to natural radionuclides in yam samples from control LGA were 110.40 ± 78.53 Bqkg-1, 10.12 ± 3.34 Bqkg-1 and 18.39 ± 8.74 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. Committed effective dose equivalent values in Oguta and the control LGAs were 704.95 ± 183.30 μSvy-1 and 403.65 ± 172.19 μSvy-1, respectively which are less than world average value of 1.1 mSvy-1. Crucially, one-way ANOVA at α0.05 has indicated that effects of radiological parameters due to natural radionuclides in yam from Oguta are significantly different from effects of radiological parameters due to natural radionuclides in yam from the control LGA. However, the percentage contributions of natural radiation exposures to incidence of cancer in Oguta and the control LGAs are just 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively, and haematological investigations have shown that overall health of the communities in the study LGAs has not been compromised due to environmental and human factors. Hence, natural radioactivity may have been elevated in Oguta but the concentration levels are not yet alarming. Radiological health risks could result from consistent exposure to those natural radionuclides in the long term.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijpra.1001034 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Natural radionuclides; Yam samples; Radiological parameters; Health risks


  1. Bastos RO, Pascholati EM. Environmental gamma radiation in Municipalities of Eastern of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Terrae. 2005; 2: 37-45.
  2. Mokobia CE, Adebiyi FM, Akpan I, Olise FS, et al. Radioassay of prominent Nigerian fossil fuels using gamma and TXRF spectroscopy fuel. 2006; 85: 1811-1814.
  3. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme): Radiation effects and sources. 2016.
  4. Hewitt Cn. Radioactivity in the environment, pollution: causes, effects and control, Harrison RM (ed.), The Royal Society of Chemistry. 1990.
  5. McDonald P, Jackson D, Leonard DRP, McKay K. An assessment of 210Pb and 210Po terrestrial foodstuffs from regions of potential technological enhancement in England and Wales. J Environ Radiat.1999; 43: 15-29.
  6. Fernandez G, Rodriquez IM, Castro GV, Carrazana G, Martizez RN. Radiological surveillance of foods and drinking water in the Cuban Republic, Proceeding of the 11th Conference of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), Madrid, Spain. 2004.
  7. Vegueria SFJ, Godoy JM, Miekeley N. Environmental impact studies of oil-field offshore platforms. Brazil J Environ Radioact. 2002; 62: 29-38.
  8. Smith KP, Blunt DL, Williams GP, Arnish JJ, Pfingston M, et al. An assessment of the disposal of petroleum industry NORM in non-hazardous Landfills. National Petroleum Technology Office, US Department of Energy Report No-DOE/BC/W-31-109-ENG-38-8. 1999.
  9. NPC (National Population Commission): National Population Census Figures, Abuja, Nigeria. 2006.
  10. ISMLS (Imo State Ministry of Lands and Survey): Imo State Ministry of Lands and Survey Publication. 2009.
  11. Okodili N. The other side of Imo oil tale. The Nation. 2014.
  12. Owuamanam JA. Imo community threatens to shut oil firm for neglect. Daily Trust. 2019.
  13. Farai IP, Jibiri NN. Baseline studies of terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rate levels in Nigeria. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2000; 88: 247-254.
  14. Jibiri NN. Assessment of health risk levels associated with terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates in Nigeria. Environ Int. 2001; 27: 21-26. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11488386/
  15. Farai IP, Obed RI, Jibiri NN. Soil radioactivity and incidence of cancer in Nigeria. J Environ Radioact. 2006; 90: 29-36. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16859817/
  16. Akhionbare AE, Osuji EE. Effect of oil exploration on socio-cultural issues in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State. Nigeria J Environ Issues Agric Dev Ctries. 2013; 5: 19-24.
  17. Jibiri NN, Emelue HU. Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria. J Radiol Prot. 2008; 28: 361-368. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18714134/
  18. Olomo JB, Akinloye MK, Balogun FA. Distribution of gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in soils and water around nuclear research establishments, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Nucl Instrum Method. 1994; 353: 553-557.
  19. Akinloye MK, Olomo JB. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in some tubers cultivated in farmlands within the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Nig J Phys. 2000; 12: 60-63.
  20. Jibiri NN, Farai IP, Alausa SK. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestions of foodstuffs in tin mining area of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria. J Environ Radioact. 2007; 94: 31-40. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17337103/
  21. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection): Dose co-efficient for the intakes of radionuclides by workers (ICRP Pub. No. 68), Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1994.
  22. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection): Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Part 5, Compilation of ingestion and inhalation dose co-efficient (ICRP Pub. No. 72), Pergamon Press, Oxford. 1996.
  23. RIFE (Radioactivity in Food and the Environment): The center for environment, fisheries and aquaculture science (CEFAS), Radioactivity in food and the environment, 2004 Report. RIFE-10. 2005.
  24. FOS (Federal Office of Statistics Nigeria): Compilation of FOS/FAO annual consumption data/food balance sheet of Nigeria, A publication of Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), Nigeria. 2006.
  25. Bamgboye EA. Sample size determination, in: A comparison of medical statistics, third ed. Folbam Publishers. Ibadan. 2008: 156.
  26. Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical haematology, Churchill Livingstone, London. 1991: 50-56.
  27. Osim EE, Akpogomeh BA, Ibu JO, Eno AE. Experimental physiology manual, Department of Physiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, third ed. 2004; 60-81.
  28. ACS (American Cancer Society): Understanding your lab test results, 2017.
  29. AACC (American Association for Clinical Chemistry): Understanding your tests, 2012.
  30. Jibiri NN, Abiodun TH. Effects of food diet preparation techniques on radionuclide intake and its implications for individual ingestion effective dose in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria. World J Nucl Sci Technol. 2012; 2: 106-113.
  31. Nwankpa AC. Determination of food crops contamination in Osun State, Nigeria due to radium-226, thorium-232 and potassium-40 concentrations in the environment. Eur J Sustain Dev. 2017; 6: 169-174.
  32. Jwanbot DI, Izam MM, Nyam GG. Radioactivity in some food crops from high background radiation area on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria. J Nat Sci Res. 2012; 2: 76-79.
  33. Avwiri GO, Agbalagba EO. Assessment of natural radioactivity, associated radiological health hazards indices and soil-to-crop transfer factors in cultivated area around a fertilizer factory in Onne, Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci. 2014; 71: 1541-1549.
  34. Gilbert AI, Olanrewaju A, Olawale IA, Aremu RO, Omosebi IAA. Measurement of (40K, 238U and 232Th) and associated dose rates in soil and commonly consumed foods (vegetables and tubers) at Okitipupa, Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Asian J Res Rev Phys. 2018; 1: 1-11.
  35. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer): IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: x- and γ-radiation and neutrons. 2000; 75.
  36. Cancer Registry Unit, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, 2016.
  37. Sharma M, Sachdeva MUS, Bose P, Varma N, Varma S, et al. Haematological profile of patients with mixed-phenotype acute leukaemia from a tertiary care centre of North India. Indian J Med Res. 2017; 145: 215-221. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28639598/
  38. Ghosh S, Shinde SC, Kumaran GS, Sapre RS, Dhond SR, et al. Hematologic and immunophenotypic profile of acute myeloid leukaemia: an experience of Tata Memorial Hospital. Indian J Cancer. 2003; 40: 71-76. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14716122/
  39. Hasan KM, Al-Allawi NAS, Badi AIA. Multilineage dysplasia in Iraqi Kurds with acute myeloid leukaemia: a retrospective study on 105 patients. Duhok Med J. 2017; 11: 1-10.
  40. Pouls RK, Shamoon RP, Muhammed NS. Clinical and haematological parameters in adult AML patients: a four year experience at Nanakaly Hospital for blood diseases. Zanco J Med Sci. 2012; 16: 199-203.
  41. Salim BW, Jalal SD. Immunological profile of acute myeloid leukaemia in Kurdistan Iraq. Duhok Med J. 2018; 12: 1-12.
  42. Sadiq MA, Shamshad GU, Ali, N, Ghani, E, Ahmed, S, Arshad, M. Haematological manifestations and frequency of FAB subtypes in patients of acute myeloid leukaemia: single centre study. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2015; 65: 610-615.


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?