Research Article

Optimizing Milk Safety: Applying Nuclear Techniques in X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metal Quantification in Powdered Milk Consumed in Senegal

Papa Macoumba Faye*, Djicknack Dione, Oumar Ndiaye, Moussa Hamady SY, Nogaye Ndiaye, Alassane Traore and Ababacar Sadikhe Ndao

Published: 09 February, 2024 | Volume 7 - Issue 1 | Pages: 010-015

This study conducted an elemental analysis and assessed heavy metal concentrations in five powdered milk samples (V1, L1, H1, G1, and D1) from Senegal, utilizing X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The analysis focused on aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and chlorine (Cl). Aluminum was either undetected or found at negligible levels in all samples. Calcium levels consistently surpassed the Acceptable Maximum Level (AML) in all samples, with H1 exceeding the AML by approximately 11.1 times (27,745.06 ± 310.16 ppm). Potassium concentrations varied, with G1 exhibiting the highest levels, significantly exceeding the AML (51,058.15 ± 456.13 ppm), while V1 remained within acceptable limits. Chlorine concentrations generally complied with the AML, except for G1, which slightly exceeded the limit (3631.04 ± 31.23 ppm). Phosphorus concentrations in H1 were notably higher than the AML (13,750.94 ± 275.35 ppm). The non-uniformity in heavy metal concentrations among samples emphasizes the need for ongoing research and regulatory scrutiny to address potential risks and ensure the safety of powdered milk.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijpra.1001078 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


X-ray fluorescence; Powdered milk; Heavy metal concentrations; Elemental analysis and AML


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